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Coaches do not get a discount,we pay the same for our meals as anyone else. You should take Take Shape For Life for six days per week. Bacillus Coagulans is an ingredient that is useful to help with health issues such as diarrhea, respiratory infections and cancer prevention. This page was last edited on 11 September , at Also, the team behind Burn TS is offering a 2-Week Sample and surefire sign of confidence in their supplement. Lower Paleolithic humans used a variety of stone tools, including hand axes and choppers. Amazing advancements against cancer, but not everyone benefits More people have cancer than ever before, but because of advancements in treatment, those people are living longer.

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Therefore, I do not recommend the eating of fish more than a few times a month, and I would much rather people who eat some animal products utilize eggs, especially those high omega-3 eggs and white meat fowl, such as turkey, chicken or fat-free dairy. To conclude, if you want to eat animal products on a regular basis, limit the consumption to one or two servings of two eggs or egg whites, or one serving of eggs and one serving of white meat turkey a week, or one serving of eggs and one serving of low-fat dairy and one serving of white meat or an occasional fish.

Do not eat fish for the supposed health benefits of fish. It is not advisable to consume enough fish to get enough omega-3 fats for your heart health. It is much more reasonable to just take a daily amount of DHA to assure nutritional excellence and adequacy, such as my DHA Purity, which is algae-derived DHA and refrigerated to maintain freshness. This is an interesting perspective and not something we normally read. The World's Healthiest Foods website has a different take on this subject, only focusing on the health benefits and not mentioning the risks.

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Unwitting patients, copycat comments play hidden role in federal rule-making This story is from Kaiser Health News. A proposal to sharply cut a drug discount program that many hospitals rely on drew some 1, comments when the Many California marijuana products failing safety tests Tests for potency and purity have been required since July. Glacials are separated by "interglacials". During a glacial, the glacier experiences minor advances and retreats.

The minor excursion is a "stadial"; times between stadials are "interstadials". During interglacial times, such as at present, drowned coastlines were common, mitigated by isostatic or other emergent motion of some regions. The effects of glaciation were global. Antarctica was ice-bound throughout the Pleistocene and the preceding Pliocene. The Andes were covered in the south by the Patagonian ice cap. There were glaciers in New Zealand and Tasmania.

Glaciers existed in the mountains of Ethiopia and to the west in the Atlas mountains. In the northern hemisphere, many glaciers fused into one. The Cordilleran ice sheet covered the North American northwest; the Laurentide covered the east.

Scattered domes stretched across Siberia and the Arctic shelf. The northern seas were frozen. During the late Upper Paleolithic Latest Pleistocene c. According to Mark Lynas through collected data , the Pleistocene's overall climate could be characterized as a continuous El Niño with trade winds in the south Pacific weakening or heading east, warm air rising near Peru , warm water spreading from the west Pacific and the Indian Ocean to the east Pacific, and other El Niño markers.

The Paleolithic is often held to finish at the end of the ice age the end of the Pleistocene epoch , and Earth's climate became warmer.

This may have caused or contributed to the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna , although it is also possible that the late Pleistocene extinctions were at least in part caused by other factors such as disease and overhunting by humans. The small populations were then hunted out by Paleolithic humans.

The Wrangel Island population became extinct around the same time the island was settled by prehistoric humans. Nearly all of our knowledge of Paleolithic human culture and way of life comes from archaeology and ethnographic comparisons to modern hunter-gatherer cultures such as the! Kung San who live similarly to their Paleolithic predecessors.

Human population density was very low, around only one person per square mile. At the beginning of the Paleolithic, hominins were found primarily in eastern Africa, east of the Great Rift Valley. Most known hominin fossils dating earlier than one million years before present are found in this area, particularly in Kenya , Tanzania , and Ethiopia.

Southern Caucasus was occupied by c. By the end of the Lower Paleolithic, members of the hominin family were living in what is now China, western Indonesia, and, in Europe, around the Mediterranean and as far north as England, southern Germany, and Bulgaria. Their further northward expansion may have been limited by the lack of control of fire: East Asian fossils from this period are typically placed in the genus Homo erectus.

Very little fossil evidence is available at known Lower Paleolithic sites in Europe, but it is believed that hominins who inhabited these sites were likewise Homo erectus. There is no evidence of hominins in America, Australia, or almost anywhere in Oceania during this time period.

Fates of these early colonists, and their relationships to modern humans, are still subject to debate. According to current archaeological and genetic models, there were at least two notable expansion events subsequent to peopling of Eurasia c.

In the Middle Paleolithic, Neanderthals were present in the region now occupied by Poland. Both Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis became extinct by the end of the Paleolithic.

Descended from Homo Sapiens , the anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens emerged in eastern Africa c. Multiple hominid groups coexisted for some time in certain locations. Homo neanderthalensis were still found in parts of Eurasia c. DNA studies also suggest an unknown degree of interbreeding between Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo sapiens denisova.

Hominin fossils not belonging either to Homo neanderthalensis or to Homo sapiens species, found in the Altai Mountains and Indonesia, were radiocarbon dated to c.

For the duration of the Paleolithic, human populations remained low, especially outside the equatorial region. Paleolithic humans made tools of stone, bone, and wood. Excavations in Gona, Ethiopia have produced thousands of artifacts, and through radioisotopic dating and magnetostratigraphy , the sites can be firmly dated to 2. Evidence shows these early hominins intentionally selected raw materials with good flaking qualities and chose appropriate sized stones for their needs to produce sharp-edged tools for cutting.

The earliest Paleolithic stone tool industry, the Oldowan , began around 2. It was completely replaced around , years ago by the more complex Acheulean industry, which was first conceived by Homo ergaster around 1. Lower Paleolithic humans used a variety of stone tools, including hand axes and choppers. Although they appear to have used hand axes often, there is disagreement about their use.

Interpretations range from cutting and chopping tools, to digging implements, to flaking cores, to the use in traps, and as a purely ritual significance, perhaps in courting behavior. Calvin has suggested that some hand axes could have served as "killer Frisbees " meant to be thrown at a herd of animals at a waterhole so as to stun one of them. There are no indications of hafting , and some artifacts are far too large for that.

Thus, a thrown hand axe would not usually have penetrated deeply enough to cause very serious injuries. Nevertheless, it could have been an effective weapon for defense against predators. Choppers and scrapers were likely used for skinning and butchering scavenged animals and sharp-ended sticks were often obtained for digging up edible roots.

Fire was used by the Lower Paleolithic hominins Homo erectus and Homo ergaster as early as , to 1. The Lower Paleolithic Homo erectus possibly invented rafts c.

However, this hypothesis is disputed within the anthropological community. In addition to improving tool making methods, the Middle Paleolithic also saw an improvement of the tools themselves that allowed access to a wider variety and amount of food sources. Harpoons were invented and used for the first time during the late Middle Paleolithic c.

During the Upper Paleolithic , further inventions were made, such as the net c. Archaeological evidence from the Dordogne region of France demonstrates that members of the European early Upper Paleolithic culture known as the Aurignacian used calendars c.

This was a lunar calendar that was used to document the phases of the moon. Genuine solar calendars did not appear until the Neolithic. The social organization of the earliest Paleolithic Lower Paleolithic societies remains largely unknown to scientists, though Lower Paleolithic hominins such as Homo habilis and Homo erectus are likely to have had more complex social structures than chimpanzee societies.

Similarly, scientists disagree whether Lower Paleolithic humans were largely monogamous or polygynous. Human societies from the Paleolithic to the early Neolithic farming tribes lived without states and organized governments.

For most of the Lower Paleolithic, human societies were possibly more hierarchical than their Middle and Upper Paleolithic descendants, and probably were not grouped into bands , [50] though during the end of the Lower Paleolithic, the latest populations of the hominin Homo erectus may have begun living in small-scale possibly egalitarian bands similar to both Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies and modern hunter-gatherers.

Middle Paleolithic societies, unlike Lower Paleolithic and early Neolithic ones, consisted of bands that ranged from 20—30 or 25— members and were usually nomadic. Bands sometimes joined together into larger "macrobands" for activities such as acquiring mates and celebrations or where resources were abundant.

Much evidence exists that humans took part in long-distance trade between bands for rare commodities such as ochre , which was often used for religious purposes such as ritual [51] [52] and raw materials, as early as , years ago in Middle Paleolithic. Some sources claim that most Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies were possibly fundamentally egalitarian [3] [22] [38] [53] and may have rarely or never engaged in organized violence between groups i.

Like contemporary egalitarian hunter-gatherers such as the Mbuti pygmies, societies may have made decisions by communal consensus decision making rather than by appointing permanent rulers such as chiefs and monarchs. Each member of the group was skilled at all tasks essential to survival, regardless of individual abilities. Theories to explain the apparent egalitarianism have arisen, notably the Marxist concept of primitive communism. Kelly speculates that the relative peacefulness of Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies resulted from a low population density, cooperative relationships between groups such as reciprocal exchange of commodities and collaboration on hunting expeditions, and because the invention of projectile weapons such as throwing spears provided less incentive for war, because they increased the damage done to the attacker and decreased the relative amount of territory attackers could gain.

Anthropologists have typically assumed that in Paleolithic societies, women were responsible for gathering wild plants and firewood, and men were responsible for hunting and scavenging dead animals. Men may have participated in gathering plants, firewood and insects, and women may have procured small game animals for consumption and assisted men in driving herds of large game animals such as woolly mammoths and deer off cliffs.

Early examples of artistic expression, such as the Venus of Tan-Tan and the patterns found on elephant bones from Bilzingsleben in Thuringia , may have been produced by Acheulean tool users such as Homo erectus prior to the start of the Middle Paleolithic period.

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