2010 Standard Occupational Classification System

Apparel Exporters in Sri Lanka.

Economy of North Korea
May also advise teachers. According to one hypothesis, this may be ancient deposits from over three billion years ago before volcanic activity, which changed the polar axis slightly by shifting material. The others are ice, covered above under Volatile resources , which I htink has an excellent case - and Helium 3 which is not so clear cut as we will see below. Usually requires specific training and State or Federal certification. There are four stages in drafting the final national economic plan. Further growth would only be attained by increasing efficiency and technological progress. If you burn plant wastes too as is the most likely thing to do in a space colony, or compost them, then you have a closed system, and any imported food will mean an excess of carbon in the system which will build up in the atmosphere rather rapidly.

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One study estimated that there were , workers in the industry. The structure of gender participation in the economy underwent a major shift with the rise of the ready-made garment industry in Bangladesh. Estimates from the World Bank put the number of female workers in the industry in the s at 50,; that number was brought up to 2. Bangladesh's flagship export-oriented ready-made garment industry, however, with female labor accounting for 90 percent of the work force, was "built to a large extent, on the supply of cheap and flexible female labor in the country.

The garment sector has provided employment opportunities to women from the rural areas that previously did not have any opportunity to be part of the formal workforce.

This has given women the chance to be financially independent and have a voice in the family because now they contribute financially.

However, women workers face problems. Most women come from low income families. Low wage of women workers and their compliance have enabled the industry to compete with the world market. Women are paid far less than men mainly due to their lack of education. But, pressure from buyers to abide by labor codes has enabled factories to maintain satisfactory working conditions. Garment workers have protested against their low wages. The firsts protests broke out in , and since then, there have been periodic protests by the workers.

Many textile factories in Bangladesh often compromise worker health and safety because of the tough pressure from the ordering companies to make tight deadlines. Management will often push workers in order to ensure that an order is fulfilled. This poses a problem as workers have almost no avenues with which to file a complaint. Almost none of the factories have any sort of human resources department and local officials often turn a blind eye to violations.

Without any structure like a formalized union, many lack the ability to speak of injustices either from lack of knowledge or fear of losing economic security. The lackluster enforcement of any safety mechanisms creates hazardous working conditions and negligible workers' rights even though Bangladesh has been a member of the International Labour Organization ILO since and the ILO been operating a Bangladeshi office since After more than a century of industrial experience and development of national regulation and international conventions, workers in Bangladesh continue to lose their health and lives while contributing in the national enrichment.

The scenario becomes worse when it comes to women workers. The female workers are exposed to different occupational health hazards such as work environment hazards, physical hazards and mental hazards.

The work environment hazards include long working hours, absence of leave facilities, congested and overcrowded working conditions, absence of health facilities and safety measures, absence of staff amenities, lack of safe drinking water. On the other hand, the physical hazards include exposures to toxic agents, awkward postures and repetitive motion. Exposure to sexual, verbal and psychological harassment and violence at their work places are the some of the common mental health hazards.

Musculoskeletal disorders have been identified as an important concern among textile workers. These complaints are related to highly repetitive movements, awkward postures in seated positions, repetitive hand and arm movements, prolonged working hours without adequate breaks and poorly designed work stations.

These risk factors result in adverse health outcomes of the workers such as musculoskeletal complaints of neck, back, hands, shoulders and lower limbs. Most of the female workers in garments factories work as sewing operators, sewing operator helper, cutting personnel and finishing personnel. This results in strain on the neck and back, and eventually to pain.

The flattened lumbar spine may cause back fatigue, disc degeneration and back injuries. Sarder and colleagues found that seats in garment factories were devoid of a backrest, which would allow intermittent short breaks for resting the upper body from bending. Moreover, workers experience excessive hand work that involves gripping and pinching with the arm in constrained postures which causes wrist pain.

Sewing machine operators are involve in highly repetitive movements of the elbows and wrists. These risk factors have a negative impact not only on the musculoskeletal health, but also on the medical cost, efficiency, and optimal performance on activities of daily living. Minimizing ergonomic risk factors through ergonomic intervention for workers is often neglected in many of the countries.

Thus, there are high rate of musculoskeletal symptoms in different body parts among sewing machine operators which points out for proper interventions. The workers should be educated about the significance of postures on their health so that they do not neglect the instructions.

Up to the mids there was little evidence available that suggested that improvement involving ergonomics principles have been implemented in garment factories in South East Asia.

The following recommendations can be implemented as solutions to reduce burden of musculoskeletal disorders among worker in the garment industries:. There are a wide range of chemicals utilized in textile production for dyeing and printing, which these workers can be exposed to. These chemicals include but are not limited to bleaching agents and azo dyes. This was due to their high stability in light and washing as well as resistance to microbial activity.

Once this sensitization has occurred, an individual becomes more susceptible to developing allergic disease on subsequent contact with the offending agent. While as of there was no evidence to suggest that most dyestuffs then in use in these industries were harmful at the levels workers were generally exposed to, there was concern with long term or accidental over-exposure. Additionally, studies have demonstrated concerns regarding exposure to textile dyes and occupational bladder cancer due to aniline dye intermediates such as beta-naphthylamine and benzidine, which has long been identified as a human urinary carcinogen.

As of , screening recommendations for detection of long term health effects from dye exposure included hematologic testing to look for microcytic anemia and leukopenia. Sandblasting is a technique used on denim to give the garment a worn look. Silicosis often leads to more severe lung diseases such as; lung cancer, Bronchitis, and Tuberculosis. They found workers inside poorly ventilated factories being exposed to respirable silica dust 20 times that of the recommended safety levels.

When the study concluded, over one third of the sandblasters had lab-confirmed silicosis and two workers had died during the study. Exposing the dangers of sandblasting has forced government agencies to step in and attempt to contain and control the amount of dust exposure. One method of containing the silica dust is the addition of water.

Another popular chemical involved in an alternate sandblasting technique is Potassium Permanganate or KMnO4. It is an odorless, dark purple, sand-like oxidizing agent. In the process of sand blasting, a worker sprays the potassium permanganate on a specific area on the denim garment with a hose or a brush. When the potassium permanganate dries, bleach is sprayed on top of the previously treated area to neutralize potassium permanganate and is then washed a second time.

When potassium permanganate comes in contact with the skin, it can cause irritation, deep burns, rashes and even dying of the skin. Inhalation of potassium permanganate can irritate the respiratory tract and can even lead to chronic lung diseases such as asthma, silicosis, and pulmonary edema. One work environment health risk that often gets overlooked is noise induced hearing loss NIHL. Asia has, over the last 50 years, seen a significant growth in the manufacturing of both primary products and finished products.

Some simple measures which could be implemented on machinery would include such actions as decreasing noise and creating noise barriers. For workers, the use of personal protective equipment, as well as the establishing maximum daily exposures, can go a long way to mitigate worker exposures to chronic noise.

In garment entrepreneurs had a reputation for shirking custom duties, evading corporate taxes, remaining absent in capital markets, avoiding social projects such as education, healthcare, and disaster relief but, as argued by authors Quddus and Salim, these entrepreneurs took the risks needed to build the industry. Many workers profited from the increase, but it was also expected to attract more young girls to factories.

Other major fires in and , resulting in hundreds of accidental deaths, included those at That's It Sportswear Limited and the fire at Tazreen Fashions Ltd.

Major foreign buyers looking for outsourcing demand compliance-related norms and standards regarding a safe and healthy work environment which includes fire-fighting equipment, evacuation protocols and mechanisms and appropriate installation of machines in the whole supply-chain. RMG insiders in Bangladesh complain about the pressure to comply and argue that RMG factory owners are hampered by a shortage of space in their rental units.

Members of the U. House of Representatives have also urged the U. Trade Representative 's office to complete its review of Bangladesh's compliance with eligibility requirements for the Generalized System of Preferences. Five deadly incidents from November through May brought worker safety and labor violations in Bangladesh to world attention putting pressure on big global clothing brands such as Primark , Loblaw , Joe Fresh , Gap, Walmart , Nike , Tchibo , Calvin Klein and Tommy Hilfiger , and retailers to respond by using their economic weight to enact change.

A fire broke out on 24 November , in the Tazreen Fashion factory in Dhaka [95] killing people and injuring Walmart director of ethical sourcing, Sridevi Kalavakolanu, asserted that the company would not agree to pay the higher cost, as such improvements in electrical and fire safety in the 4, factories would be a "very extensive and costly modification" and that "it is not financially feasible for the brands to make such investments.

It was likely the first time any garment factory owner in Bangladesh had been charged. On 24 April over textile workers factories making clothes for Western brands were killed when a garment factory collapsed. The Savar building collapse was in the Rana Plaza complex, in Savar, an industrial corner 20 miles northwest of Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. It was the "world's deadliest industrial accident" since the Bhopal disaster in India in In spite of this factories stayed open to fill overdue orders.

When generators were restarted after a power blackout the building caved in. Nine people were arrested including four factory owners, the owner of the complex and the engineer who warned of the crack in the building. In June after a two-year investigation homicide charges were filed against 42 people in the collapse of a factory Rana Plaza that killed more than 1, people in April Sohel Rana , the building owner, Refat Ullah, mayor at the time of the incident along with owners of five garment factories located in the Rana Plaza, and "dozens of local council officials and engineers" were charged with culpable homicide, "which carries a maximum sentence of life in prison under Bangladeshi law.

Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association BGMEA is a recognised trade body that represents export oriented garment manufacturers and garment exporters of the country. The fundamental objective of BGMEA is to establish a healthy business environment for a close and mutually beneficial relationship between manufacturers, exporters and importers, thereby ensuring steady growth in the foreign exchange earnings of the country.

In its final report BGMEA pinned the blame on inspection officials who granted permits to factory owners to install heavy machinery on the two floors not authorized to exist in the first place and on local officials for neglecting to ensure proper oversight of building plans.

The report also indicated that building owner Sohel Rana may have been able to corrupt municipal officials by offering bribes. On 9 May eight people were killed when a fire broke out at a textile factory in an eleven-story building in the Mirpur industrial district owned by Tung Hai Group, a large garment exporter.

The president of the politically powerful textile industry lobby group, the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association BGMEA , told Reuters that "the Bangladeshi managing director of the company and a senior police officer were among the dead. Around companies - mostly from Europe - international and local trade unions, Bangladeshi employers, exporters and government are part of this agreement.

A spokesman stated that "Ten factories have been submitted to the Government Established Review Panel and most have been either closed completely or partially. In addition, international pressure from human rights organizations, labor organizations, NGOs, and consumers from Western nations pushed corporate retailers to play a larger role in protecting worker safety.

Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia. LinkedIn Facebook Google Plus. Buyer Inspection System in Garments Sector. See image of First Bulk Review Meeting below. May design and produce promotional materials. May also raise awareness of the organization's work, goals, and financial needs.

Conduct programs of compensation and benefits and job analysis for employer. May specialize in specific areas, such as position classification and pension programs. Design and conduct training and development programs to improve individual and organizational performance. May analyze training needs. Research market conditions in local, regional, or national areas, or gather information to determine potential sales of a product or service, or create a marketing campaign.

May gather information on competitors, prices, sales, and methods of marketing and distribution. Examine, analyze, and interpret accounting records to prepare financial statements, give advice, or audit and evaluate statements prepared by others.

Install or advise on systems of recording costs or other financial and budgetary data. Appraise real property and estimate its fair value. May assess taxes in accordance with prescribed schedules.

Examine budget estimates for completeness, accuracy, and conformance with procedures and regulations. Analyze budgeting and accounting reports.

Analyze credit data and financial statements of individuals or firms to determine the degree of risk involved in extending credit or lending money. Prepare reports with credit information for use in decision making. Conduct quantitative analyses of information affecting investment programs of public or private institutions. Advise clients on financial plans using knowledge of tax and investment strategies, securities, insurance, pension plans, and real estate.

Duties include assessing clients' assets, liabilities, cash flow, insurance coverage, tax status, and financial objectives. Review individual applications for insurance to evaluate degree of risk involved and determine acceptance of applications.

Enforce or ensure compliance with laws and regulations governing financial and securities institutions and financial and real estate transactions. May examine, verify, or authenticate records. Advise and educate individuals or organizations on acquiring and managing debt. May provide guidance in determining the best type of loan and explaining loan requirements or restrictions. May help develop debt management plans, advise on credit issues, or provide budget, mortgage, and bankruptcy counseling.

Evaluate, authorize, or recommend approval of commercial, real estate, or credit loans. Advise borrowers on financial status and payment methods. Includes mortgage loan officers and agents, collection analysts, loan servicing officers, and loan underwriters. Determine tax liability or collect taxes from individuals or business firms according to prescribed laws and regulations.

Prepare tax returns for individuals or small businesses. Excludes "Accountants and Auditors" Conduct research into fundamental computer and information science as theorists, designers, or inventors. Develop solutions to problems in the field of computer hardware and software. Analyze science, engineering, business, and other data processing problems to implement and improve computer systems. Analyze user requirements, procedures, and problems to automate or improve existing systems and review computer system capabilities, workflow, and scheduling limitations.

May analyze or recommend commercially available software. Plan, implement, upgrade, or monitor security measures for the protection of computer networks and information.

May ensure appropriate security controls are in place that will safeguard digital files and vital electronic infrastructure. May respond to computer security breaches and viruses. Excludes "Computer Network Architects" Create, modify, and test the code, forms, and script that allow computer applications to run. Work from specifications drawn up by software developers or other individuals.

May assist software developers by analyzing user needs and designing software solutions. May develop and write computer programs to store, locate, and retrieve specific documents, data, and information. Develop, create, and modify general computer applications software or specialized utility programs. Analyze user needs and develop software solutions. Design software or customize software for client use with the aim of optimizing operational efficiency. May analyze and design databases within an application area, working individually or coordinating database development as part of a team.

May supervise computer programmers. Research, design, develop, and test operating systems-level software, compilers, and network distribution software for medical, industrial, military, communications, aerospace, business, scientific, and general computing applications.

Set operational specifications and formulate and analyze software requirements. May design embedded systems software. Apply principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis. Design, create, and modify Web sites. Analyze user needs to implement Web site content, graphics, performance, and capacity. May integrate Web sites with other computer applications. May convert written, graphic, audio, and video components to compatible Web formats by using software designed to facilitate the creation of Web and multimedia content.

Excludes "Multimedia Artists and Animators" Administer, test, and implement computer databases, applying knowledge of database management systems.

Coordinate changes to computer databases. May plan, coordinate, and implement security measures to safeguard computer databases. Excludes "Information Security Analysts" Install, configure, and support an organization's local area network LAN , wide area network WAN , and Internet systems or a segment of a network system. Monitor network to ensure network availability to all system users and may perform necessary maintenance to support network availability.

May monitor and test Web site performance to ensure Web sites operate correctly and without interruption. May assist in network modeling, analysis, planning, and coordination between network and data communications hardware and software.

May supervise computer user support specialists and computer network support specialists. May administer network security measures.

Design and implement computer and information networks, such as local area networks LAN , wide area networks WAN , intranets, extranets, and other data communications networks. Perform network modeling, analysis, and planning. May also design network and computer security measures. May research and recommend network and data communications hardware and software.

Provide technical assistance to computer users. Answer questions or resolve computer problems for clients in person, or via telephone or electronically. May provide assistance concerning the use of computer hardware and software, including printing, installation, word processing, electronic mail, and operating systems.

Excludes "Network and Computer Systems Administrators" Analyze, test, troubleshoot, and evaluate existing network systems, such as local area network LAN , wide area network WAN , and Internet systems or a segment of a network system. Perform network maintenance to ensure networks operate correctly with minimal interruption. All computer occupations not listed separately.

Analyze statistical data, such as mortality, accident, sickness, disability, and retirement rates and construct probability tables to forecast risk and liability for payment of future benefits. May ascertain insurance rates required and cash reserves necessary to ensure payment of future benefits.

Conduct research in fundamental mathematics or in application of mathematical techniques to science, management, and other fields. Solve problems in various fields using mathematical methods. Algebraist , Cryptographer , Cryptographic Vulnerability Analyst. Formulate and apply mathematical modeling and other optimizing methods to develop and interpret information that assists management with decision making, policy formulation, or other managerial functions.

May collect and analyze data and develop decision support software, service, or products. May develop and supply optimal time, cost, or logistics networks for program evaluation, review, or implementation. Develop or apply mathematical or statistical theory and methods to collect, organize, interpret, and summarize numerical data to provide usable information.

May specialize in fields such as bio-statistics, agricultural statistics, business statistics, or economic statistics. Includes mathematical and survey statisticians. Excludes "Survey Researchers" Apply standardized mathematical formulas, principles, and methodology to technological problems in engineering and physical sciences in relation to specific industrial and research objectives, processes, equipment, and products. Plan and design structures, such as private residences, office buildings, theaters, factories, and other structural property.

Plan and design land areas for projects such as parks and other recreational facilities, airports, highways, hospitals, schools, land subdivisions, and commercial, industrial, and residential sites. Collect, analyze, and interpret geographic information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite data. Research, study, and prepare maps and other spatial data in digital or graphic form for legal, social, political, educational, and design purposes. May design and evaluate algorithms, data structures, and user interfaces for GIS and mapping systems.

Make exact measurements and determine property boundaries. Provide data relevant to the shape, contour, gravitation, location, elevation, or dimension of land or land features on or near the earth's surface for engineering, mapmaking, mining, land evaluation, construction, and other purposes. Perform engineering duties in designing, constructing, and testing aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft.

May conduct basic and applied research to evaluate adaptability of materials and equipment to aircraft design and manufacture. May recommend improvements in testing equipment and techniques. Apply knowledge of engineering technology and biological science to agricultural problems concerned with power and machinery, electrification, structures, soil and water conservation, and processing of agricultural products.

Apply knowledge of engineering, biology, and biomechanical principles to the design, development, and evaluation of biological and health systems and products, such as artificial organs, prostheses, instrumentation, medical information systems, and heath management and care delivery systems. Design chemical plant equipment and devise processes for manufacturing chemicals and products, such as gasoline, synthetic rubber, plastics, detergents, cement, paper, and pulp, by applying principles and technology of chemistry, physics, and engineering.

Perform engineering duties in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of building structures, and facilities, such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation projects, pipelines, power plants, and water and sewage systems. Includes architectural, structural, traffic, ocean, and geo-technical engineers.

Research, design, develop, or test computer or computer-related equipment for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. May supervise the manufacturing and installation of computer or computer-related equipment and components.

Research, design, develop, test, or supervise the manufacturing and installation of electrical equipment, components, or systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. Excludes "Computer Hardware Engineers" Research, design, develop, or test electronic components and systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use employing knowledge of electronic theory and materials properties. Design electronic circuits and components for use in fields such as telecommunications, aerospace guidance and propulsion control, acoustics, or instruments and controls.

Research, design, plan, or perform engineering duties in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental hazards using various engineering disciplines.

Work may include waste treatment, site remediation, or pollution control technology. Promote worksite or product safety by applying knowledge of industrial processes, mechanics, chemistry, psychology, and industrial health and safety laws. Includes industrial product safety engineers.

Design, develop, test, and evaluate integrated systems for managing industrial production processes, including human work factors, quality control, inventory control, logistics and material flow, cost analysis, and production coordination. Design, develop, and evaluate the operation of marine vessels, ship machinery, and related equipment, such as power supply and propulsion systems.

Evaluate materials and develop machinery and processes to manufacture materials for use in products that must meet specialized design and performance specifications. Develop new uses for known materials. Includes those engineers working with composite materials or specializing in one type of material, such as graphite, metal and metal alloys, ceramics and glass, plastics and polymers, and naturally occurring materials.

Includes metallurgists and metallurgical engineers, ceramic engineers, and welding engineers. Perform engineering duties in planning and designing tools, engines, machines, and other mechanically functioning equipment. Oversee installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of equipment such as centralized heat, gas, water, and steam systems. Conduct sub-surface surveys to identify the characteristics of potential land or mining development sites.

May specify the ground support systems, processes and equipment for safe, economical, and environmentally sound extraction or underground construction activities. May inspect areas for unsafe geological conditions, equipment, and working conditions. May design, implement, and coordinate mine safety programs. Excludes "Petroleum Engineers" Conduct research on nuclear engineering projects or apply principles and theory of nuclear science to problems concerned with release, control, and use of nuclear energy and nuclear waste disposal.

Devise methods to improve oil and gas extraction and production and determine the need for new or modified tool designs. Oversee drilling and offer technical advice. Prepare detailed drawings of architectural and structural features of buildings or drawings and topographical relief maps used in civil engineering projects, such as highways, bridges, and public works. Use knowledge of building materials, engineering practices, and mathematics to complete drawings.

Prepare wiring diagrams, circuit board assembly diagrams, and layout drawings used for the manufacture, installation, or repair of electrical equipment. Prepare detailed working diagrams of machinery and mechanical devices, including dimensions, fastening methods, and other engineering information. May record and interpret test data.

Apply theory and principles of civil engineering in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of structures and facilities under the direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.

Apply electrical and electronic theory and related knowledge, usually under the direction of engineering staff, to design, build, repair, calibrate, and modify electrical components, circuitry, controls, and machinery for subsequent evaluation and use by engineering staff in making engineering design decisions. Excludes "Broadcast Technicians" Operate, test, maintain, or calibrate unmanned, automated, servo-mechanical, or electromechanical equipment.

May operate unmanned submarines, aircraft, or other equipment at worksites, such as oil rigs, deep ocean exploration, or hazardous waste removal. May assist engineers in testing and designing robotics equipment. Apply theory and principles of environmental engineering to modify, test, and operate equipment and devices used in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental problems, including waste treatment and site remediation, under the direction of engineering staff or scientist.

May assist in the development of environmental remediation devices. Apply engineering theory and principles to problems of industrial layout or manufacturing production, usually under the direction of engineering staff. May perform time and motion studies on worker operations in a variety of industries for purposes such as establishing standard production rates or improving efficiency. Apply theory and principles of mechanical engineering to modify, develop, test, or calibrate machinery and equipment under direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.

Perform surveying and mapping duties, usually under the direction of an engineer, surveyor, cartographer, or photogrammetrist to obtain data used for construction, mapmaking, boundary location, mining, or other purposes. May calculate mapmaking information and create maps from source data, such as surveying notes, aerial photography, satellite data, or other maps to show topographical features, political boundaries, and other features. May verify accuracy and completeness of maps.

Excludes "Surveyors" , "Cartographers and Photogrammetrists" , and "Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers" Conduct research in the genetics, nutrition, reproduction, growth, and development of domestic farm animals.

Use chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other sciences to study the principles underlying the processing and deterioration of foods; analyze food content to determine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, and protein; discover new food sources; research ways to make processed foods safe, palatable, and healthful; and apply food science knowledge to determine best ways to process, package, preserve, store, and distribute food.

Conduct research in breeding, physiology, production, yield, and management of crops and agricultural plants or trees, shrubs, and nursery stock, their growth in soils, and control of pests; or study the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to plant or crop growth. May classify and map soils and investigate effects of alternative practices on soil and crop productivity. Arboreal Scientist , Horticulturist , Plant Physiologist. Study the chemical composition or physical principles of living cells and organisms, their electrical and mechanical energy, and related phenomena.

May conduct research to further understanding of the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. May determine the effects of foods, drugs, serums, hormones, and other substances on tissues and vital processes of living organisms. Investigate the growth, structure, development, and other characteristics of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, algae, or fungi.

Includes medical microbiologists who study the relationship between organisms and disease or the effects of antibiotics on microorganisms. Bacteriologist , Public Health Microbiologist , Virologist.

Study the origins, behavior, diseases, genetics, and life processes of animals and wildlife. May specialize in wildlife research and management.

May collect and analyze biological data to determine the environmental effects of present and potential use of land and water habitats. Herpetologist , Ichthyologist , Marine Biologist , Ornithologist. Manage, improve, and protect natural resources to maximize their use without damaging the environment.

May conduct soil surveys and develop plans to eliminate soil erosion or to protect rangelands. May instruct farmers, agricultural production managers, or ranchers in best ways to use crop rotation, contour plowing, or terracing to conserve soil and water; in the number and kind of livestock and forage plants best suited to particular ranges; and in range and farm improvements, such as fencing and reservoirs for stock watering.

Excludes "Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists" and "Foresters" Manage public and private forested lands for economic, recreational, and conservation purposes. May inventory the type, amount, and location of standing timber, appraise the timber's worth, negotiate the purchase, and draw up contracts for procurement.

May determine how to conserve wildlife habitats, creek beds, water quality, and soil stability, and how best to comply with environmental regulations. May devise plans for planting and growing new trees, monitor trees for healthy growth, and determine optimal harvesting schedules.

Investigate and describe the determinants and distribution of disease, disability, or health outcomes. May develop the means for prevention and control. Epidemiology Investigator , Malariologist , Pharmacoepidemiologist. Conduct research dealing with the understanding of human diseases and the improvement of human health.

Engage in clinical investigation, research and development, or other related activities. Includes physicians, dentists, public health specialists, pharmacologists, and medical pathologists who primarily conduct research.

Practitioners who primarily provide medical or dental care or dispense drugs are included in "Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners" Observe, research, and interpret astronomical phenomena to increase basic knowledge or apply such information to practical problems. Conduct research into physical phenomena, develop theories on the basis of observation and experiments, and devise methods to apply physical laws and theories.

Excludes "Biochemists and Biophysicists" Investigate atmospheric phenomena and interpret meteorological data, gathered by surface and air stations, satellites, and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other uses.

Includes weather analysts and forecasters whose functions require the detailed knowledge of meteorology. Conduct qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses or experiments in laboratories for quality or process control or to develop new products or knowledge. Research and study the structures and chemical properties of various natural and synthetic or composite materials, including metals, alloys, rubber, ceramics, semiconductors, polymers, and glass.

Determine ways to strengthen or combine materials or develop new materials with new or specific properties for use in a variety of products and applications. Includes glass scientists, ceramic scientists, metallurgical scientists, and polymer scientists. Conduct research or perform investigation for the purpose of identifying, abating, or eliminating sources of pollutants or hazards that affect either the environment or the health of the population.

Using knowledge of various scientific disciplines, may collect, synthesize, study, report, and recommend action based on data derived from measurements or observations of air, food, soil, water, and other sources. Study the composition, structure, and other physical aspects of the Earth.

May use geological, physics, and mathematics knowledge in exploration for oil, gas, minerals, or underground water; or in waste disposal, land reclamation, or other environmental problems. May study the Earth's internal composition, atmospheres, oceans, and its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces. Includes mineralogists, crystallographers, paleontologists, stratigraphers, geodesists, and seismologists.

Geochemist , Oceanographer , Petrologist , Volcanologist. Research the distribution, circulation, and physical properties of underground and surface waters; and study the form and intensity of precipitation, its rate of infiltration into the soil, movement through the earth, and its return to the ocean and atmosphere.

Hydrogeologist , Isotope Hydrologist , Surface Hydrologist. Conduct research, prepare reports, or formulate plans to address economic problems related to the production and distribution of goods and services or monetary and fiscal policy.

May collect and process economic and statistical data using sampling techniques and econometric methods. Plan, develop, or conduct surveys. May analyze and interpret the meaning of survey data, determine survey objectives, or suggest or test question wording. Includes social scientists who primarily design questionnaires or supervise survey teams. Diagnose and treat mental disorders; learning disabilities; and cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems, using individual, child, family, and group therapies.

May design and implement behavior modification programs. Apply principles of psychology to human resources, administration, management, sales, and marketing problems. Activities may include policy planning; employee testing and selection, training and development; and organizational development and analysis. May work with management to organize the work setting to improve worker productivity. Study human society and social behavior by examining the groups and social institutions that people form, as well as various social, religious, political, and business organizations.

May study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members.

Criminologist , Family Sociologist , Rural Sociologist. Develop comprehensive plans and programs for use of land and physical facilities of jurisdictions, such as towns, cities, counties, and metropolitan areas. Study the origin, development, and behavior of human beings.

May study the way of life, language, or physical characteristics of people in various parts of the world. May engage in systematic recovery and examination of material evidence, such as tools or pottery remaining from past human cultures, in order to determine the history, customs, and living habits of earlier civilizations.

Ethnoarchaeologist , Political Anthropologist , Research Archaeologist. Study the nature and use of areas of the Earth's surface, relating and interpreting interactions of physical and cultural phenomena. Conduct research on physical aspects of a region, including land forms, climates, soils, plants, and animals, and conduct research on the spatial implications of human activities within a given area, including social characteristics, economic activities, and political organization, as well as researching interdependence between regions at scales ranging from local to global.

Research, analyze, record, and interpret the past as recorded in sources, such as government and institutional records, newspapers and other periodicals, photographs, interviews, films, electronic media, and unpublished manuscripts, such as personal diaries and letters. Study the origin, development, and operation of political systems. May study topics, such as public opinion, political decision-making, and ideology.

May analyze the structure and operation of governments, as well as various political entities. May conduct public opinion surveys, analyze election results, or analyze public documents.

Work with agricultural and food scientists in food, fiber, and animal research, production, and processing; and assist with animal breeding and nutrition. Conduct tests and experiments to improve yield and quality of crops or to increase the resistance of plants and animals to disease or insects. Includes technicians who assist food scientists or technologists in the research and development of production technology, quality control, packaging, processing, and use of foods.

Assist biological and medical scientists in laboratories. Set up, operate, and maintain laboratory instruments and equipment, monitor experiments, make observations, and calculate and record results.

May analyze organic substances, such as blood, food, and drugs. Conduct chemical and physical laboratory tests to assist scientists in making qualitative and quantitative analyses of solids, liquids, and gaseous materials for research and development of new products or processes, quality control, maintenance of environmental standards, and other work involving experimental, theoretical, or practical application of chemistry and related sciences.

Assist scientists or engineers in the use of electronic, sonic, or nuclear measuring instruments in both laboratory and production activities to obtain data indicating potential resources such as metallic ore, minerals, gas, coal, or petroleum. Analyze mud and drill cuttings. Chart pressure, temperature, and other characteristics of wells or bore holes.

Investigate and collect information leading to the possible discovery of new metallic ore, minerals, gas, coal, or petroleum deposits. Assist nuclear physicists, nuclear engineers, or other scientists in laboratory or production activities. May operate, maintain, or provide quality control for nuclear testing and research equipment. Nuclear Monitoring Technician , Radiochemical Technician. Assist social scientists in laboratory, survey, and other social science research.

May help prepare findings for publication and assist in laboratory analysis, quality control, or data management. Excludes "Graduate Teaching Assistants" Perform laboratory and field tests to monitor the environment and investigate sources of pollution, including those that affect health, under the direction of an environmental scientist, engineer, or other specialist.

May collect samples of gases, soil, water, and other materials for testing. Collect, identify, classify, and analyze physical evidence related to criminal investigations. Perform tests on weapons or substances, such as fiber, hair, and tissue to determine significance to investigation. May testify as expert witnesses on evidence or crime laboratory techniques. May serve as specialists in area of expertise, such as ballistics, fingerprinting, handwriting, or biochemistry.

Provide technical assistance regarding the conservation of soil, water, forests, or related natural resources. May compile data pertaining to size, content, condition, and other characteristics of forest tracts, under the direction of foresters; or train and lead forest workers in forest propagation, fire prevention and suppression.

May assist conservation scientists in managing, improving, and protecting rangelands and wildlife habitats. Excludes "Conservation Scientists" and "Foresters" Counsel and advise individuals with alcohol, tobacco, drug, or other problems, such as gambling and eating disorders. May counsel individuals, families, or groups or engage in prevention programs. Excludes "Social Workers" through , "Psychologists" through , and "Mental Health Counselors" providing these services.

Diagnose and treat mental and emotional disorders, whether cognitive, affective, or behavioral, within the context of marriage and family systems. Apply psychotherapeutic and family systems theories and techniques in the delivery of services to individuals, couples, and families for the purpose of treating such diagnosed nervous and mental disorders. Excludes "Social Workers" through and "Psychologists" of all types through Counsel with emphasis on prevention.

Work with individuals and groups to promote optimum mental and emotional health. May help individuals deal with issues associated with addictions and substance abuse; family, parenting, and marital problems; stress management; self-esteem; and aging. Excludes "Social Workers" through , "Psychiatrists" , and "Psychologists" through Counsel individuals to maximize the independence and employability of persons coping with personal, social, and vocational difficulties that result from birth defects, illness, disease, accidents, or the stress of daily life.

Coordinate activities for residents of care and treatment facilities. Assess client needs and design and implement rehabilitation programs that may include personal and vocational counseling, training, and job placement. Provide social services and assistance to improve the social and psychological functioning of children and their families and to maximize the family well-being and the academic functioning of children.

May assist parents, arrange adoptions, and find foster homes for abandoned or abused children. In schools, they address such problems as teenage pregnancy, misbehavior, and truancy. May also advise teachers. Provide individuals, families, and groups with the psychosocial support needed to cope with chronic, acute, or terminal illnesses. Services include advising family care givers, providing patient education and counseling, and making referrals for other services.

May also provide care and case management or interventions designed to promote health, prevent disease, and address barriers to access to healthcare. Activities may include individual and group therapy, crisis intervention, case management, client advocacy, prevention, and education. Provide and manage health education programs that help individuals, families, and their communities maximize and maintain healthy lifestyles.

Collect and analyze data to identify community needs prior to planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating programs designed to encourage healthy lifestyles, policies, and environments. May serve as resource to assist individuals, other health professionals, or the community, and may administer fiscal resources for health education programs. Excludes "Community Health Workers" Provide social services to assist in rehabilitation of law offenders in custody or on probation or parole.

Make recommendations for actions involving formulation of rehabilitation plan and treatment of offender, including conditional release and education and employment stipulations. Assist in providing client services in a wide variety of fields, such as psychology, rehabilitation, or social work, including support for families.

May assist clients in identifying and obtaining available benefits and social and community services. May assist social workers with developing, organizing, and conducting programs to prevent and resolve problems relevant to substance abuse, human relationships, rehabilitation, or dependent care.

Assist individuals and communities to adopt healthy behaviors. Conduct outreach for medical personnel or health organizations to implement programs in the community that promote, maintain, and improve individual and community health. May provide information on available resources, provide social support and informal counseling, advocate for individuals and community health needs, and provide services such as first aid and blood pressure screening.

May collect data to help identify community health needs. Excludes "Health Educators" Conduct religious worship and perform other spiritual functions associated with beliefs and practices of religious faith or denomination.

Provide spiritual and moral guidance and assistance to members. Plan, direct, or coordinate programs designed to promote the religious education or activities of a denominational group. May provide counseling and guidance relative to marital, health, financial, and religious problems. Represent clients in criminal and civil litigation and other legal proceedings, draw up legal documents, or manage or advise clients on legal transactions.

May specialize in a single area or may practice broadly in many areas of law. Assist judges in court or by conducting research or preparing legal documents. Excludes "Lawyers" and "Paralegals and Legal Assistants" Conduct hearings to recommend or make decisions on claims concerning government programs or other government-related matters.

Determine liability, sanctions, or penalties, or recommend the acceptance or rejection of claims or settlements. Excludes "Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators" Facilitate negotiation and conflict resolution through dialogue.

Resolve conflicts outside of the court system by mutual consent of parties involved. Arbitrate, advise, adjudicate, or administer justice in a court of law. May sentence defendant in criminal cases according to government statutes or sentencing guidelines. May determine liability of defendant in civil cases. May perform wedding ceremonies. Assist lawyers by investigating facts, preparing legal documents, or researching legal precedent.

Conduct research to support a legal proceeding, to formulate a defense, or to initiate legal action.

Excludes "Legal Secretaries" Use verbatim methods and equipment to capture, store, retrieve, and transcribe pretrial and trial proceedings or other information. Includes stenocaptioners who operate computerized stenographic captioning equipment to provide captions of live or prerecorded broadcasts for hearing-impaired viewers.

Search real estate records, examine titles, or summarize pertinent legal or insurance documents or details for a variety of purposes. May compile lists of mortgages, contracts, and other instruments pertaining to titles by searching public and private records for law firms, real estate agencies, or title insurance companies.

Buyer Inspection System in Garments Sector