What Is Chia?
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A decline in levels of circulating leptin also changes brain activity in areas involved in the regulatory, emotional, and cognitive control of appetite that are reversed by administration of leptin. Osteoarthritis and obesity are closely linked. Obesity is one of the most important preventable factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Originally, the relationship between osteoarthritis and obesity was considered to be exclusively biomechanically based, according to which the excess weight caused the joint to become worn down more quickly.
However, today we recognise that there is also a metabolic component which explains why obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis, not only for weight-bearing joints for example, the knees , but also for joints that do not bear weight for example, the hands. Thus, the deregulated production of adipokines and inflammatory mediators, hyperlipidaemia, and the increase of systemic oxidative stress are conditions frequently associated with obesity which can favour joint degeneration.
Furthermore, many regulation factors have been implicated in the development, maintenance and function, both of adipose tissues, as well as of the cartilage and other joint tissues. Alterations in these factors can be the additional link between obesity and osteoarthritis.
Adipocytes interact with other cells through producing and secreting a variety of signalling molecules, including the cell signalling proteins known as adipokines. Certain adipokines can be considered as hormones, as they regulate the functions of organs at a distance, and several of them have been specifically involved in the physiopathology of joint diseases.
In particular, there is one, leptin, which has been the focus of attention for research in recent years. The circulating leptin levels are positively correlated with the Body Mass Index BMI , more specifically with fatty mass, and obese individuals have higher leptin levels in their blood circulation, compared with non-obese individuals.
In addition to the function of regulating energy homeostasis, leptin carries out a role in other physiological functions such as neuroendocrine communication, reproduction, angiogenesis and bone formation. More recently, leptin has been recognised as a cytokine factor as well as with pleiotropic actions also in the immune response and inflammation. Leptin has thus emerged as a candidate to link obesity and osteoarthritis and serves as an apparent objective as a nutritional treatment for osteoarthritis.
As in the plasma, the leptin levels in the synovial fluid are positively correlated with BMI. Leptin has been shown to be produced by chondrocytes, as well as by other tissues in the joints, including the synovial tissue, osteophytes, the meniscus and bone. The risk of suffering osteoarthritis can be decreased with weight loss.
This reduction of risk is related in part with the decrease of the load on the joint, but also in the decrease of fatty mass, the central adipose tissue and the low-level inflammation associated with obesity and systemic factors.
This growing evidence points to leptin as a cartilage degradation factor in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, and as a potential biomarker in the progression of the disease, which suggests that leptin, as well as regulation and signalling mechanisms, can be a new and promising target in the treatment of osteoarthritis, especially in obese patients.
Obese individuals are predisposed to developing osteoarthritis, not only due to the excess mechanical load, but also due to the excess expression of soluble factors, that is, leptin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to joint inflammation and cartilage destruction.
As such, obese individuals are in an altered state, due to a metabolic insufficiency, which requires specific nutritional treatment capable of normalising the leptin production and reducing the systematic low-level inflammation, in order to reduce the harmful impact of these systematic mediators on the joint health.
There are nutritional supplements and pharmacological agents capable of directing these factors and improving both conditions. Leptin was approved in the United States in for use in congenital leptin deficiency and generalized lipodystrophy. An analog of human leptin metreleptin trade name Myalept was first approved in Japan in , and in the United States in February In the US it is indicated as a treatment for complications of leptin deficiency, and for the diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia associated with congenital or acquired generalized lipodystrophy.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Lectin or Lecithin. Structure of the obese protein leptin-E Leptin plays a critical role in the adaptive response to starvation. Leptin receptor and Energy expenditure. Bearing in mind that other hormones such as ghrelin operate in a faster-time scale, it would be misleading to define it as "the satiety hormone".
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Lay summary — WebMD. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Cell and Tissue Research. Focus on "Fructose-induced leptin resistance exacerbates weight gain in response to subsequent high-fat feeding," by Shapiro et al".
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Survey of the effects of W on inflammatory mediators produced by OA cartilage as detected by protein antibody array". Retrieved 30 April Thyroid hormones T 3 T 4 Calcitonin Thyroid axis. Glucagon Insulin Amylin Somatostatin Pancreatic polypeptide. Eptinezumab Erenumab Fremanezumab Galcanezumab. Corticorelin Corticotropin releasing hormone Sauvagine Urocortin Antagonists: Galanin Galanin Galmic Galnon Antagonists: Chia is an edible seed that comes from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , grown in Mexico dating back to Mayan and Aztec cultures.
That makes sense, as chia seeds are a concentrated food containing healthy omega-3 fatty acids, carbohydrates, protein, fiber, antioxidants , and calcium. Chia seeds are an unprocessed, whole-grain food that can be absorbed by the body as seeds unlike flaxseeds. One ounce about 2 tablespoons contains calories, 4 grams of protein, 9 grams fat, 12 grams carbohydrates and 11 grams of fiber, plus vitamins and minerals.
The mild, nutty flavor of chia seeds makes them easy to add to foods and beverages. They are most often sprinkled on cereal, sauces, vegetables, rice dishes, or yogurt or mixed into drinks and baked goods. They can also be mixed with water and made into a gel. In theory, chia seeds are supposed to expand in your belly, helping you to feel full, eat less, and ultimately shed pounds.
But one study indicates otherwise. So many things affect our weight loss, exercise, age, etc. How to Make Pumpkin Spiced Tea. Unless otherwise noted, images were received from Wholefood Farmacy as part of an email educational series.
Certain posts contain information from that educational series with personal insights added. All such information is used with permission. The Purpose of this Website, and About the Author. Are there free or less expensive weight loss programs that you can do on your own? Because the program may be too expensive for certain people, ideas for less expensive alternatives to NutriSystem are provided on this page.
Some prepackaged meals that you buy in the supermarket or online are better than what I was eating when on NutriSystem. Personally, I can no longer eat their foods because there are too many things in them that I am sensitive too now I also am not thrilled with how much sodium is in prepared foods. Perhaps one day changes will be made to accommodat e those of us who have food sensitivities.
If this were to happen I may try their program ag ain. The most important aspect of any weight loss program is having an organized plan to follow, so I am attempting to put one together here, for myself and anyone else that might be interested.
If you would like to use the NutriSystem Meal Planner to record your meals, they are often available here. You have to scan through the list of items to find them , but it's easy to do. There are planners for women and men, and occasionally different prog rams, like the Silver program that was available when I joined, but these result in only minor changes in the planners. What is available at any given time may vary. You can also use what I have provided below as a guide.
You should have enough information right here to know how much you should eat at each meal, and between meals.
The F ood E xchange L ist has all the food groups and portion sizes for each individual food on the list. I t also has a free foods list , foods that you can e at unlimited amounts of Don't be put off by the fact that the list is created for diab etic s , in fact you will lose weight using the list, and who doesn't want to prevent diabetes When one of my husband's doc tors wanted him to lose weight years ago, he was given this very list.
ALSO if you aren't using one of the food trackers mentioned above this section, please feel free to print my meal checklist to keep track of your foods as you eat them.