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For types of vegetarian food, see vegetarian cuisine. Ethical vegetarians also believe that killing an animal, like killing a human, especially one who has equal or lesser cognitive abilities than the animals in question, can only be justified in extreme circumstances and that consuming a living creature for its enjoyable taste, convenience, or nutrition value is not a sufficient cause. I stuck to it for 2 weeks tho and didn't lose anything. Those with diets containing fish or poultry may define meat only as mammalian flesh and may identify with vegetarianism. He cites the Adventist emphasis on health, diet, and Sabbath-keeping as primary factors for Adventist longevity. It was played up as the greatest thing going. Not only that but, at least with Jenny Craig, the food messed up my digestive system so badly that I couldn't eat real food for a while.

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The human digestive system is omnivorous , capable of consuming a wide variety of plant and animal material. The American Dietetic Association has presented evidence that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders. At the same time the association cautions however, that the adoption of a vegetarian diet may not necessarily lead to eating disorders, rather that "vegetarian diets may be selected to camouflage an existing eating disorder".

Vegetarianism is associated with increased risk of depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorder, although causality cannot be established. Various ethical reasons have been suggested for choosing vegetarianism, usually predicated on the interests of non-human animals.

In many societies, controversy and debate have arisen over the ethics of eating animals. Some people, while not vegetarians, refuse to eat the flesh of certain animals due to cultural taboo , such as cats, dogs, horses or rabbits. Others support meat eating for scientific, nutritional and cultural reasons, including religious ones. Some meat eaters abstain from the meat of animals reared in particular ways, such as factory farms , or avoid certain meats, such as veal or foie gras.

Some people follow vegetarian or vegan diets not because of moral concerns involving the raising or consumption of animals in general, but because of concerns about the specific treatment and practises involved in the raising and slaughter of animals, i.

Others still avoid meat because meat production is claimed to place a greater burden on the environment than production of an equivalent amount of plant protein. Ethical objections based on consideration for animals are generally divided into opposition to the act of killing in general, and opposition to certain agricultural practices surrounding the production of meat.

Princeton University professor and animal rights activist Peter Singer believes that if alternative means of survival exist, one ought to choose the option that does not cause unnecessary harm to animals. Most ethical vegetarians argue that the same reasons exist against killing animals in the flesh to eat as against killing humans to eat, especially humans with cognitive abilities equal or lesser than the animals in question.

Singer, in his book Animal Liberation , listed possible qualities of sentience in non-human creatures that gave such creatures the scope to be considered under utilitarian ethics , and this has been widely referenced by animal rights campaigners and vegetarians. Ethical vegetarians also believe that killing an animal, like killing a human, especially one who has equal or lesser cognitive abilities than the animals in question, can only be justified in extreme circumstances and that consuming a living creature for its enjoyable taste, convenience, or nutrition value is not a sufficient cause.

Another common view is that humans are morally conscious of their behaviour in a way other animals are not, and therefore subject to higher standards. McMahan stated that cognitively disabled human do not possess the same rights as non-disabled humans. While mentally disabled people were in the past often treated with extreme brutality, with the progression of morality most people understand that the rights of the cognitively disabled still include a right to life and kind treatment.

Increasingly, as moral philosophy progresses further, people understand that, outside of survival situations, denying the right to life to animals with equal or greater cognitive abilities than mentally disabled humans is an arbitrary, discriminatory practice based on habit and desire as opposed to logic. Opponents of ethical vegetarianism argue that animals are not moral equals to humans and so consider the comparison of eating livestock with killing people to be fallacious.

This view does not excuse cruelty, but maintains that animals do not possess the rights a human has. One of the main differences between a vegan and a typical vegetarian diet is the avoidance of both eggs and dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter and yogurt. Ethical vegans do not consume dairy or eggs because they state that their production causes the animal suffering or a premature death. To produce milk from dairy cattle , calves are separated from their mothers soon after birth and slaughtered or fed milk replacer in order to retain the cows milk for human consumption.

A dairy cow's natural life expectancy is about twenty years. In battery cage and free-range egg production, unwanted male chicks are culled or discarded at birth during the process of securing a further generation of egg-laying hens. Ethical vegetarianism has become popular in developed countries particularly because of the spread of factory farming , faster communications, and environmental consciousness.

Some believe that the current mass demand for meat cannot be satisfied without a mass-production system that disregards the welfare of animals, while others believe that practices like well-managed free-ranging and consumption of game, particularly from species whose natural predators have been significantly eliminated, could substantially alleviate the demand for mass-produced meat.

Ancient Greek philosophy has a long tradition of vegetarianism. Pythagoras was reportedly vegetarian and studied at Mt. Carmel, where some historians say there was a vegetarian community , as his followers were expected to be. Roman writer Ovid concluded his magnum opus Metamorphoses , in part, with the impassioned argument uttered by the character of Pythagoras that in order for humanity to change, or metamorphose , into a better, more harmonious species, it must strive towards more humane tendencies.

He cited vegetarianism as the crucial decision in this metamorphosis, explaining his belief that human life and animal life are so entwined that to kill an animal is virtually the same as killing a fellow human. Everything changes; nothing dies; the soul roams to and fro, now here, now there, and takes what frame it will, passing from beast to man, from our own form to beast and never dies Therefore lest appetite and greed destroy the bonds of love and duty, heed my message! Never by slaughter dispossess souls that are kin and nourish blood with blood!

Jainism teaches vegetarianism as moral conduct as do some major [] sects of Hinduism. Buddhism in general does not prohibit meat eating, while Mahayana Buddhism encourages vegetarianism as beneficial for developing compassion. Sikhism [] [] [] does not equate spirituality with diet and does not specify a vegetarian or meat diet.

Theravadins in general eat meat. In the Theravada canon, Buddha did not make any comment discouraging them from eating meat except specific types, such as human, elephant meat , horse, dog, snake, lion, tiger, leopard, bear, and hyena flesh [] but he specifically refused to institute vegetarianism in his monastic code when a suggestion had been made.

In several Sanskrit texts of Mahayana Buddhism , Buddha instructs his followers to avoid meat. Christians have always been free to make their own decisions about what to eat; however, there are groups within Christianity that practice specific dietary restrictions for various reasons.

Surviving fragments from their Gospel indicate their belief that — as Christ is the Passover sacrifice and eating the Passover lamb is no longer required — a vegetarian diet may or should be observed. However, orthodox Christianity does not accept their teaching as authentic. Indeed, their specific injunction to strict vegetarianism was cited as one of the Ebionites' "errors". At a much later time, the Bible Christian Church founded by Reverend William Cowherd in followed a vegetarian diet.

They have also sponsored and participated in many scientific studies exploring the impact of dietary decisions upon health outcomes. Additionally, some monastic orders follow a vegetarian diet, and members of the Orthodox Church follow a vegan diet during fasts.

The association grew in prominence during the 19th century, coupled with growing Quaker concerns in connection with alcohol consumption, anti-vivisection and social purity. The association between the Quaker tradition and vegetarianism, however, becomes most significant with the founding of the Friends' Vegetarian Society in "to spread a kindlier way of living amongst the Society of Friends.

According to Canon Law , Roman Catholics are required to abstain from meat defined as all animal flesh excluding water animals on Ash Wednesday and all Fridays of Lent including Good Friday. Canon Law also obliges Catholics to abstain from meat on the Fridays of the year outside of Lent excluding certain holy days unless, with the permission of the local conference of bishops, another penitential act is substituted.

The restrictions on eating meat on these days is solely as an act of penance and not because of a religious objection to eating meat. Since the formation of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the s when the church began, wholeness and health have been an emphasis of the Adventist church, and has been known as the "health message" belief of the church. Obedience to these laws means abstinence from pork, shellfish, and other animals proscribed as " unclean ".

The church discourages its members from consuming alcoholic beverages , tobacco or illegal drugs compare Christianity and alcohol. In addition, some Adventists avoid coffee , tea , cola , and other beverages containing caffeine. The pioneers of the Adventist Church had much to do with the common acceptance of breakfast cereals into the Western diet, and the "modern commercial concept of cereal food" originated among Adventists.

His development of breakfast cereals as a health food led to the founding of Kellogg's by his brother William. In both Australia and New Zealand , the church-owned Sanitarium Health and Wellbeing Company is a leading manufacturer of health and vegetarian-related products, most prominently Weet-Bix. Research funded by the U. National Institutes of Health has shown that the average Adventist in California lives 4 to 10 years longer than the average Californian.

The research , as cited by the cover story of the November issue of National Geographic , asserts that Adventists live longer because they do not smoke or drink alcohol, have a day of rest every week, and maintain a healthy, low-fat vegetarian diet that is rich in nuts and beans. He cites the Adventist emphasis on health, diet, and Sabbath-keeping as primary factors for Adventist longevity.

Though there is no strict rule on what to consume and what not to, paths of Hinduism hold vegetarianism as an ideal. However, the food habits of Hindus vary according to their community, location, custom and varying traditions. Historically and currently, those Hindus who eat meat prescribe Jhatka meat, [] while some Hindus believe that the cow is a holy animal whose slaughter for meat is forbidden.

Some followers of Islam, or Muslims, chose to be vegetarian for health, ethical, or personal reasons. However, the choice to become vegetarian for non-medical reasons can sometimes be controversial due to conflicting fatwas and differing interpretations of the Quran. Though some more traditional Muslims may keep quiet about their vegetarian diet, the number of vegetarian Muslims is increasing. The former Indian president Dr. Abdul Kalam was also famously a vegetarian.

Many non-vegetarian Muslims will select vegetarian or seafood options when dining in non- halal restaurants. However, this is a matter of not having the right kind of meat rather than preferring not to eat meat on the whole. Followers of Jainism believe that all living organisms whether they are micro-organism are living and have a soul, and have one or more senses out of five senses and they go to great lengths to minimise any harm to any living organism.

Most Jains are lacto-vegetarians but more devout Jains do not eat root vegetables because they believe that root vegetables contain a lot more micro-organisms as compared to other vegetables, and that, by eating them, violence of these micro-organisms is inevitable. So they focus on eating beans and fruits, whose cultivation do not involve killing of a lot of micro-organisms. No products obtained from dead animals are allowed, because when a living beings dies, a lot of micro-organisms called as decomposers will reproduce in the body which decomposes the body, and in eating the dead bodies, violence of decomposers is inevitable.

Jain monks usually do a lot of fasting, and when they knew through spiritual powers that their life is very little, they start fasting until death.

Some Jains do not consume plant parts that grow underground such as roots and bulbs, because the plants themselves and tiny animals may be killed when the plants are pulled up. While classical Jewish law neither requires nor prohibits the consumption of meat, Jewish vegetarians often cite Jewish principles regarding animal welfare , environmental ethics , moral character, and health as reasons for adopting a vegetarian or vegan diet. A number of medieval rabbis e.

Many modern rabbis, by contrast, advocate vegetarianism or veganism primarily because of concerns about animal welfare, especially in light of the traditional prohibition on causing unnecessary "pain to living creatures" tza'ar ba'alei hayyim. According to Genesis , consumption of meat was prohibited to human beings 1: Some advocates of Jewish vegetarianism, such as Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook , describe vegetarianism as an eschatological ideal to which all human beings must eventually return.

Jewish vegetarianism and veganism have become especially popular among Israeli Jews. In , Israel was described as "the most vegan country on Earth", as five percent of its population eschewed all animal products. Within the Afro-Caribbean community, a minority are Rastafari and follow the dietary regulations with varying degrees of strictness. The most orthodox eat only " Ital " or natural foods, in which the matching of herbs or spices with vegetables is the result of long tradition originating from the African ancestry and cultural heritage of Rastafari.

Ital cooking in its strictest form prohibits the use of salt, meat especially pork , preservatives, colorings, flavorings and anything artificial.

The tenets of Sikhism do not advocate a particular stance on either vegetarianism or the consumption of meat, [] [] [] [] but leave the decision of diet to the individual. This is understood to have been for the political reason of maintaining independence from the then-new Muslim hegemony, as Muslims largely adhere to the ritualistic halal diet. Guru Nanak said that over-consumption of food Lobh , Greed involves a drain on the Earth's resources and thus on life.

Who can define what is meat and what is not meat? Who knows where the sin lies, being a vegetarian or a non-vegetarian? Environmental vegetarianism is based on the concern that the production of meat and animal products for mass consumption, especially through factory farming , is environmentally unsustainable. According to a United Nations initiative, the livestock industry is one of the largest contributors to environmental degradation worldwide, and modern practices of raising animals for food contribute on a "massive scale" to air and water pollution, land degradation , climate change, and loss of biodiversity.

The initiative concluded that "the livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global. In addition, animal agriculture is a large source of greenhouse gases.

Livestock sources including enteric fermentation and manure account for about 3. Meat produced in a laboratory called in vitro meat may be more environmentally sustainable than regularly produced meat.

In May , Ghent , Belgium, was reported to be "the first [city] in the world to go vegetarian at least once a week" for environmental reasons, when local authorities decided to implement a "weekly meatless day".

Civil servants would eat vegetarian meals one day per week, in recognition of the United Nations' report. Posters were put up by local authorities to encourage the population to take part on vegetarian days, and "veggie street maps" were printed to highlight vegetarian restaurants.

In September , schools in Ghent are due to have a weekly veggiedag "vegetarian day" too. Some groups, such as PETA , promote vegetarianism as a way to offset poor treatment and working conditions of workers in the contemporary meat industry. Similar to environmental vegetarianism is the concept of economic vegetarianism.

An economic vegetarian is someone who practices vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint concerning issues such as public health and curbing world starvation, the belief that the consumption of meat is economically unsound, part of a conscious simple living strategy or just out of necessity.

According to the Worldwatch Institute , "Massive reductions in meat consumption in industrial nations will ease their health care burden while improving public health; declining livestock herds will take pressure off rangelands and grainlands, allowing the agricultural resource base to rejuvenate.

As populations grow, lowering meat consumption worldwide will allow more efficient use of declining per capita land and water resources, while at the same time making grain more affordable to the world's chronically hungry. Prejudice researcher Gordon Hodson observes that vegetarians and vegans frequently face discrimination where eating meat is held as a cultural norm. A market research study conducted by the Yankelovich research organisation concluded that "of the At least one study indicates that vegetarian women are more likely to have female babies.

A study of 6, pregnant women in "found that while the national average in Britain is boys born to every girls, for vegetarian mothers the ratio was just 85 boys to girls". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the diet for human beings. For plant-only diets in animals, see herbivore. For types of vegetarian food, see vegetarian cuisine.

For other uses, see Vegetarian disambiguation. Vegetarianism in ancient India India is a strange country. On average, vegetarians consume a lower proportion of calories from fat particularly saturated fatty acids , fewer overall calories, more fiber, potassium, and vitamin C, than do non-vegetarians.

Vegetarians generally have a lower body mass index. I've never tried nutrisystem, but I was on Jenny Craig and that's the same thing. I understand the ease of having portion sizes already measured out for you because that's why I signed up, too. Not having to prepare my own meals was another bonus because I'm lazy and I am a terrible cook, so that part was good.

However, my problem with any of these programs that force you to eat prepackaged foods is that it doesn't teach you how to choose and measure your own food. So, you might do really well and lose the weight on nutrisystem, but as soon as you go off, you'll gain it all back again. Not only that but, at least with Jenny Craig, the food messed up my digestive system so badly that I couldn't eat real food for a while.

I stupidly went back on it again like 15 years later and thankfully I got sick right away from the food so I was able to cancel before I got in too deep. But these prepackaged foods are so filled with preservatives, sodium, chemicals, soy and all sorts of unnatural crap that your body will not be happy about, I think it's just not a good idea. I have major problems with soy because it's an estrogenic. Most overweight women have overabundance of estrogen so they should be staying as far away from soy as possible if they know what's good for them.

As annoying as it is to have to watch what you eat, really South Beach diet and Weight Watchers are two of the best and healthiest lifestyles out there. It's hard to put in that effort to really pay attention to what you're eating, believe me I know because I'm extremely busy between work full time and grad school part time. But honestly, the only methods that will truly help you in the long run are those that teach you how to eat healthy on your own so you're not depending on their food to either continue losing weight or to maintain your weight loss.

That's my two cents. You can try it but I'm just saying, think about what you'll do when you've done your 2 months.

What are you going to do about food? How are you going to prepare your own meals and how will you cope when you don't have the prepackaged stuff anymore? That's all stuff you need to think about. NutriSystem - Results - Good or Bad? Kszan; Thanks for you input! I do appreciate it. I have been on NS for about 5 days and I really can't complain about anything yet.

Haven't had any problems with the food at all. I actually have alot more energy and feel better than when I started. I have tried WW before Didn't really do anything for me. I am doing this for a couple of months, possibly 3 because I want to lose about 35 lbs. I believe it is teaching portion size by eating the meals.

I do know what I have to do once I get there to keep from gaining it back. I am going to the gym everyday which I have always done anyway but plan to keep up with for the rest of my life.

I just need a jump start because believe me I have tried everything. I think spending the money also gives me more of a incentive to really keep going. I won't screw up and waste my money.

I haven't had any digestive problems as of yet so keeping my fingers crossed. I will post about my progress as time goes on. Thanks again for the input I will keep that in mind!! Last edited by mod-anon; at Please use the Quick Reply button instead of Quote Reply. Well I have to say that I have been on NS for a week now and I really am feeling quite good about it! I like the food so far and haven't had any issues.

I want to lose 40 lbs and I weighed in Monday and I lost 7!! It is so easy to do this plan I only wish I would have done it sooner. I know some of the weight is probably water but I'll take it! I have been working out about x week drinking lots of water, eating my meals, lots of fruits and veggies. Feeling really good overall. This is really teaching me portion control.

I was def eating way to big portions before. I will keep you posted on next weeks weigh in! Ok, here's my input: I have tried every diet out there-seriously. Nutrisystem was horrible for me. I didn't like the food I rememeber one soup smelled exactly like dog food. I stuck to it for 2 weeks tho and didn't lose anything. I knew that I could not rely on pre-packaged foods and the only way I would be happy and get my healthy foods in would be WW.

It has the highest success rate for people losing and keeping it off, plus it's one that doctors will always recommend. I started in January and down 35lbs already. I can eat and drink what I want-which is the reality of life anyway, not eating pre-packaged foods! My opinion is if you try WW and it does nothing for you, then you din't follow the program exactly how you are supposed to.

Lastly, to lose healthy you should lose no more than 2 lbs a week. Slow but steady winds the race! You can lose fast other ways but it WILL come back. I have lost 7 lbs so far. I did a typo in my previous message of I am happy with this program. I like the idea of no measuring food out. I know exactly what to eat to get my calories in. I really think this program teaches you portion control so when you do go back to eating the regular foods you know how much you should eat. I have been eating very healthy I also feel very good.

I have tried WW before and it didn't work for me. Not to say other people wouldn't have success For me though I think this is the way to go right now. I am doing it for 3 months and then going on maintenenance. Actually NS has lots of recipes and stuff for when you do maintenance to keep you within the calorie limits also. So far this is the only thing I have tried where I actually am losing every week and at a healthy loss of about 2 lbs a week!

Good luck to you!