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Weight training causes micro-tears to the muscles being trained; this is generally known as microtrauma. Most mothers can produce enough milk for tandem nursing, but the new baby should be nursed first for at least the first few days after delivery to ensure that it receives enough colostrum. However, I would expect similar TEF from whey protein vs beef protein isolate, for example. Presenter Steve Tansey, Josh Berrier. If it was researched and would have useful applications, I would have heard about it.

Nitric Oxide Supplements

The Ultimate Guide to Muscle Protein Synthesis

Preventing an injury altogether! Learn how yoga reduces the risk of injury and promotes rehabilitation and wellness. We'll dive into the complex world of the athlete and look at yoga as corrective exercise and strength development for all-around elite performance and longevity.

While inspired by the athlete, this workshop is also relevant to injury prevention and recovery for anyone. Do you want to learn how to qualify and teach a client boxing basics such as the stance, jab and cross punches?

If the answer is yes, then this is the session for you. The key to mastering a skill quickly is following a proven system. Please join Ben McDonald for this energizing, engaging and effective session.

We guarantee you will leave with a teaching system, smile on your face, access to post session video support and most importantly a new skill that you can implement right away into your training repertoire.

Coach Vives will discuss concepts of fundamental, transitional, and functional exercise inspired by the developmental sequence, providing a progressive approach to applying functional exercises with an emphasis on vital core training. She'll follow up with a look at transitional exercises that progress core stability in more complex standing, single-leg-dominant, and locomotive activities.

These exercises and strategies bridge the gap between essential core training and more dynamic functional movements. Think you have what it takes? This revolutionary high-intensity workout truly follows the music. Body weight, muscle conditioning, cardio, and plyometrics are synced to original music designed to match each move. This session is offered on Friday at 8: Does the music move you? We all have an innate ability to find and feel the beat of music.

In this session, you'll learn how to take music and use the rhythm to your riding advantage. Experience how to work with various beats that are layered in with fun drills and games for a safe and effective ride. Unleash your inner beat! Learn the secret to creating buzz in the locker room and a wait list for your class. Get ready to have your mind blown and your classes sold out!

Join Gin Miller as she introduces the most exciting concept in group fitness since Step Aerobics. A brand new presentation on the emerging field of sports medicine focused on weight-training injuries.

Learn their common causes, the different types of assessments used, and the most effective treatments and rehab exercises for these injuries. Take your assessment and rehab knowledge on these injuries to the next level for Monday-morning clients.

Stairmaster has created a formula that allows clubs and trainers alike to make use of any and all available equipment options, employing unique interval protocols that result in endless options for plug-and-play workouts.

Plug in the details and play! Learn the foundation of the kettlebell get-up, sometimes referred to as the Turkish get-up. In this practice-focused session, DTS Fitness Education lead instructor Freyja Spence will guide you through the step-by-step drills used to teach and refine the get-up.

This movement challenges steering strength, coordination, athleticism, and shoulder and core stability. Sacroiliac SI joint pain is a debilitating and problematic issue. Often confused with low back pain, it can arise from causes.

Furthermore, asymmetrical flexibility or poor posture increases the likelihood of SI joint dysfunction and pain, particularly when increased loads are added. Get the knowledge and skills to identify clients suffering from SI joint pain and avoid creating problems in clients at risk from SI joint issues.

K Institute formula for creating effective stretching, stabilization, and strengthening programs for clients with SI joint pain, and understand when you need to refer at-risk clients for medical assistance. Evolve your core training and take it to the next level! Featuring a fusion of elements from pilates, you'll experience an integrated approach to moving from your powerhouse and the core's relationship to total-body strength, balance and power.

Tackle your complete core in six body positions and walk away with fun, functional, and unique ideas to add to your workouts. Dive deep into core stability and mobility as you learn movement complexes and strategies to build core strength and improve performance and function.

Why do most coaches struggle so much in becoming successful business owners? And with good reason! The risk of getting it wrong is so great. Follow the right path and your business and income grows. There are close to 3, startup companies innovating in the fitness technology space according to leading venture capital tracking site AngelList. Determining which of these is on the verge of disrupting traditional fitness club operators and which of them compliments what we are already doing today is critical to setting a strategy for your fitness business.

In this panel session our technology experts will unpack the complex and ever evolving world of fitness technology and shed some light on trends that every fitness professional and club operator should be monitoring. Because every client has unique demands, learn a basic Halo Training workout and explore how to progress or regress exercises for functional strength and stability, flexibility, and injury prevention.

An exciting four-event athletic challenge utilizing the WaterRower, Battle Ropes, and body-resistance exercises in teams of four athletes each.

You'll be immersed in fitness drills and thrills that include the assistance of other participants, all designed to show you how team-building games will help you double your strength and stimulate your soul. Make your test today your testimony tomorrow! Can you already do splits and bridges but want to take your flexibility to the next level?

Learn contortion techniques that can be used to make your flexibility stand out. There are many tools that can be used to kick up your training to be able to achieve those next-level shapes and poses. It's important to know proper technique so that you can cross that line into advanced movements without getting injured. The shoulder is one of the most problematic joints in the body.

It's also one of the most mobile. Personal trainers say "put your shoulders down and back," but is this always best? Examine the anatomy behind common shoulder injuries and get a new perspective on corrective exercise program design.

Motherhood is a busy time and involves multifaceted movement. It isn't uncommon to see a woman holding a breastfeeding child in one arm while balancing a laundry basket on her hip!

Preparing for the dynamic demands of motherhood while still pregnant is key and is the ultimate in functional fitness. Learn about the various movements of motherhood and how best to train your pregnant client for those movements. Using the principle of specificity and some creativity, you'll elevate your training and fitness classes to a new level.

This intense circuit will release mobility impairments from head to toe. We'll highlight common imbalances and problem areas and demonstrate specific release techniques. Much more than a foam rolling session, the Gauntlet will also take you through active mobility drills to ensure that the brain and nervous system can control the newly acquired ranges of motion. If you want to learn how to apply the latest research on mobility and learn by doing as opposed to listening, this session is a must.

Get ready to feel the most limber you've been in years! Learn about the most important structures in the brain and how yoga increases both neuroplasticity the brain's ability to change and neurogenesis the brain's ability to grow new cells after just one yoga session! This new understanding is what makes yoga and meditation the medicine of the future.

This informative workshop is meant to demystify yoga by understanding the basic safety principles involved in a class flow. Involving both physical practice and discussion, we'll include the key elements of YogaFit, including the YogaFit essence, three mountain format, seven principles of alignment SPA , and transformational language. Experience what sets YogaFit apart, making it the most popular style of yoga for the fitness industry.

Be inspiring, save your vocal cords, and get the undivided attention of your participants. The bulk of the meaning in any message is communicated non-verbally through facial expression, posture, and actions, i. Work with the music and motivate participants to perform movements with top-notch technique. From a profile that takes you across various terrains to the addition of technology for incentive and fun, experience the unique teaching style of our award-winning master trainers during a ride where we can each truly achieve more, together.

Are you ready to join our trifecta? Will a power-filled profile cause your party riders to walk away? We'll delve into the aspects of body positioning, goal setting, musicality, and using metrics, all while keeping humour alive throughout as we blend both perspectives. When the music and coaching are spot-on, rhythm riding can be a magical experience.

The right rhythm ride doesn't need smoke and mirrors or unnecessary distractions. We'll show you how to capture and captivate your riders the right way and provide your members with a memorable, results-based, musically amazing cycling experience. Bending and squatting are primal pattern movements that depend on an efficient hip hinge pattern. Stuart McGill — one of the premiere authorities on lower back health — states that the hip hinge is paramount for injury prevention and performance.

Learn how to rebuild that hip hinge pattern from the ground up following the DTS Fitness Education seven-step system. A practical, learner-focused, interactive session.

Elite workout methods like HIIT, PHA, ploymetrics, super-setting, combo lifting, 3-dimensional movement possibilities, functional body weight training and much more, come together in one powerful class that offers you the most successful way to get lean and shredded fast. This class is unparalleled in its approach and its results. The latest training tool for boxing specialists and fitness enthusiasts alike. This session is offered on Friday at 2: Experience this advanced multi-modality workout that will leave you properly worked but wishing for more.

This advanced session will illustrate innovative TRX coaching practices and emerging new programming in a high-energy, multi-modality setting. Learn how to deal with major shoulder concerns within the scope of your practice. Understand the major shoulder conditions and how to improve or prevent them through corrective exercise programming. Learn how the bar can enhance strength, stability, balance, and core activation by simply changing the way you hold it.

Whether you grip it, tip it, flip it, or strip it, even the simplest exercises will feel brand new and accessible for all. This panel will share their advice based on their respective fields of expertise, sharing their bold and incisive predictions about the future. When inverted, the Stability Barrel can sustain full body weight to target balance and control. The padded gentle curve on the opposing side provides a platform for support and proprioception and allows for preparatory counter-movements in flowing sequences.

With a focus on multiplanar form and function, create deeper mental focus and the concentration needed to develop core strength, increase flexibility, and achieve greater balance and kinesthetic awareness. Get ready to find out where plyometrics precede stretching, strength is in length, breath is transforming, and sport meets your spirit: Experience the power of muscular energy and heat followed by the life force that flows through dynamic and sustained yoga stretches.

Discover these great tools to help you learn and grow. This hands-on workshop blends assisted stretching, therapeutic postures, and acupressure techniques to help your clients improve their mobility, muscular recovery, and athletic performance. Designed specifically for personal trainers and small group fitness instructors, this session will help you address the undertrained component of flexibility, teaching you skills that you can apply with your clients immediately.

A program of strengthening and flexibility exercises to improve core strength, range of motion, flexibility, mobility, and posture, while helping to reduce joint pain. This hands-on workshop is designed for personal trainers and group fitness instructors who want to help teach their clients functional exercises which can be incorporated into daily life. These exercises improve body awareness and help clients move through their day taller, straighter, and with greater ease.

Too many fitness professionals struggle to find prospective clients. They struggle with inspiring people to commit to health and fitness goals and to their programs.

They get scared and uncomfortable when asking people for money. And they are afraid to challenge clients to make commitments. They believe that helping people and asking for money are at odds with each other.

Understand the energy of each of the 7 seven chakras and how we may have either deficiencies or excessive characteristics that impact our well-being. Identifying and practicing poses that relate to each chakra along with specific cues, mudras, and mantras, you'll that will leave us balanced and centered with take- home practices to stay that way. The nature of most fitness regimens keeps hip movement along one plane, leading to lack of mobility through both the hip joint and low back.

In addition, research shows that the hips are where we store our trauma. In yoga, the hips are aligned to our sacral chakra — our emotional centre and creative energy. When this is blocked, we suffer. We'll discuss the anatomy of the hip joint and its effect on surrounding areas of the body, exploring low back pain and abdominal weakness. You'll get personal attention to proper alignment and learn poses for both you and your clients.

Small group training uses smart circuits to effectively train multiple clients and athletes. Arming yourself with tools and principles for progression allows you to identify clients' individual needs quickly and target training goals.

The functional movement screen is just such a tool — it tells you when movement patterns are ready to load for higher intensities or if corrective exercises can be substituted to provide a smart alternative and regression when needed.

Learn about these strategies and get exercise examples that you can use regardless of your style and experience in training. Revolutionize your cardio workout and feel the Latin heat with exotic world rhythms in red-hot, never-before-seen ways. Walk in and dance out! A cardio jam session inspired by the infectious, sweat-dripping fun of playing the drums.

Instead of listening to the music, you become the music in this exhilirating full-body workout that combines cardio, conditioning, and strength training with yoga and pilates-inspired movements. Back by popular demand! Step up to the stage, get on a bike, and let the performance begin.

Indoor cycling is all about balancing the elements of solid riding, commanding the group, and creating a memorable experience.

Create a memory in this session, sing your heart out, and have a few laughs as you join other riders to sing and cycle along to your favourite songs, past and present.

Your teammates and you will practice, strategize, and then race a team pursuit on the Olympic velodrome, courtesy of Stages Flight. Discover how a group working together can accomplish what an individual alone never could. About the only thing missing will be the g-force through the turns! In this workshop you'll learn what to play, when to play it, and where to find the music and remixes that no one else on your team will have.

Music is magic and we're going to make you all magicians! Join an all-star team of canfitpro presenters as they celebrate 25 years of fitness! Take a journey through past, present and future with your favourite fitness pros as they tag team a workout that will have you sweating, laughing, and learning. The versatile practice can be used in personal training or in group class format.

In this master class, DTS Master Intructor Freyja Spence will take you through the primary components, culminating in a complete 'flow. This exciting session delves into the details of optimal recovery and provides a number of sequences that you can apply immediately.

The way you wind down from the main effort of your workout can have a tremendous effect on maximizing results from your hard work and helps to set the stage so you can perform optimally in your next session. Learn how to avoid the common mistakes that many trainers make at this stage of their workouts and how to map your sequences to the physiological requirements of effective reloading and recovery. Too often, exercise programs begin with "how much can I lift?

Lee will discuss the process of focusing on how well your client is performing during exercise and activity, not just how often. Review the latest research on this methodology and how it can be used practically to improve outcomes.

We'll look at specific case studies in a variety of personal training, strength and conditioning, and sports medicine settings to demonstrate the benefits of this philosophy. More is not always better. In this talk you will get a deeper understanding of the links and interactions between biomotor abilities and performance. Alejandro will show you how to organize your ideas and create your own unique system that will establish distinct training-induced outcomes in the least amount of time, all the time!

They don't know how to lead a team and lack the management systems required for continued growth. They feel stressed and overwhelmed with wearing all the hats in their business for so long, and lack confidence in their ability to lead the growth of their company at this stage.

In this session, we will show you a proven process for creating more time and freedom to enjoy your success and do the things you love to do, as well as build a team that has your back and grows your business with you--and finally, to better serve more clients and make a bigger impact on the world.

This fresh presentation reviews new consult forms and strategies to help clients implement healthy eating behaviour. Most eating plans are given to clients without ever asking what they like to eat and where.

Most clients end up not using said eating plans because they don't know what some of the foods are or how to prepare them. These forms and information sheets help determine how, where, and why people eat. You'll leave this enlightening lecture with all of the forms required to help implement an eating program. With every step we take we encounter ground reaction forces that rapidly enter the body. Emily explores how the stabilization to load impact forces must be rapid and integrated between the feet and core.

Learn the neuromuscular, biomechanical, and fascial interconnections between the foot and core. You'll experience activation techniques and progressions that will change the way you look at stabilization, impact, and human movement. Designed for yoga instructors, this hands-on session explores yoga asana assists from a Thai massage perspective.

Gaining a deeper understanding of the physiology of touch will help you discover the more discrete internal cues of the tissues and the sensations that underpin skilled assists in your yoga classes.

As a result, you'll greatly enhance your ability to sense and respond to non-verbal feedback mechanisms, guiding your class participants into a deeper and safer expression of their practice. By combining balance, strength, and fluid mindful movement, this dynamic session includes sequences that flow gracefully from one to the next.

Crunches have been around for over a decade now and the promises of flatter abs and no more back pain have never been met. It's time to move on to modern core movement that will ease back pain, flatten your abs, and strengthen your core for good! To analyze why someone can't achieve a posture, we must look past the surface of the body and see it as a moving skeleton, identifying which joints are involved and determining their range of motion. Instead of correcting the body to conform to our expectations or poses demonstrated in books, teachers should allow the body to form in a way that makes sense for each individual student.

We'll offer simple tests to determine when compression occurs in key areas like the shoulder, pelvis, and ankle, and identify the limits of each student.

These anatomical principles apply to all yoga postures. Get your Zen on and your heart rate up. Combining the best of both worlds and alternating classic yoga poses with intense full-body moves, this class is sure to increase blood flow, stretch muscles, and focus the mind.

Walk out feeling rejuvenated after challenging your heart rate and soothing your muscles. This session will begin by showing you how to implement Chad's Prepair2Perform model: We'll then go through an interval-based movement progression model i. But how should instructors best use all these exciting advances?

Maximize the benefits of technology and keep riders engaged and inspired both on and off the bike. It has been said that training makes us weaker: But does the need to keep our classes challenging and exciting put us at odds with this truth?

What are optimal work-to-rest ratios? Do your interval profiles deliver a 'dose' sufficient to create the results your clients want?

Understand the vital role of recovery and how powerful it can be when applied properly. If your clients or you are experiencing a fitness plateau despite regular training, this session may provide answers, along with fun and practical examples of ways to bust through to the next level!

Our wildly successful class-design workshop BOGOF is back by popular demand — bigger, better, and primed to leave you with a ton of ideas that will keep you and your riders happy for a very long time. We'll discuss members' wants and needs and look at how to keep all types of riders happy in class. It's all in the way you set it up!

Learn how to assess, regress, and progress breathing patterns using different positions, challenges, breath holds, breath counts, and mental imaging. Breathing pattern disorders are a common issue that every personal health coach should be aware of: Join us for this interactive session to gain key information, insights, and tools that you can apply immediately with yourself and your clients. So how can a coach separate him or herself from the bunch?

What's the future of personal coaching? Learn how neurological, biomechanical, and hormonal assessment can be a game-changer for your practice. Join Mo and Helen for this dynamic fusion of fitness and function, integrating 50 years of experience in functional training philosophy and practice into a 60 minute training session that will highlight 25 of their favorite exercises in a 60 minute workout.

If you teach group fitness, train personal clients for the sport of life, or simply want to work out with this dynamic duo, this session is for you! This workshop explains the best way to apply these advanced athletic training methods and key strategies for training power and explosiveness in all clients and athletes.

To be a Spartan takes more than just completing an obstacle course. It's a mindset — a lifestyle — an attitude. This workshop will show you how you can help yourself and others become both 'race ready' and 'life ready. Challenge your mind, train your body, and discover your inner Spartan as you embody five key principles: Amplify fitness and athleticism with a high-energy training template that will optimize results for all fitness levels.

Learn unique Sport C. Come prepared to be challenged with advanced training techniques, enhance your exercise library, and accelerate results! This session brings together a unique group of extraordinary women whose passion, talent and determination have established them as extraordinary leaders and change agents.

Each panelists will share their view on the changing field for women in business. Through this interactive session you will discover ways you can blaze your own path as a female leader.

This session welcomes men to join in on the conversation. Beginning with the ideas of postural rehabilitation and muscle rebalancing, we'll explore how newer ideas of fascial integration, proprioception, and preparatory counter-movements are being incorporated in a workout that goes to the next level. An extraordinary athletic challenge utilizing the WaterRower and battle ropes. If you love rowing and battle ropes exercises, experience both in this power-packed program designed to challenge your stamina and charge your spirit like never before!

Build your exercise library with a class-ready overall workout that provides practical examples of the concepts of breath, support, yield, and flow: We'll use small props in a buoyant, playful way for an accessible workout with a lower-body emphasis.

Learn to honour individual freedoms and limitations and customize exercises to avoid triggering pain while maximizing movement efficiency.

This workshop will examine the simple foundations of hydration, movement, and principles of tissue mobility that contribute to overuse injuries. Walk away with knowledge of MCT and how to restore normal tissue mobility before injuries occur. The pelvic floor and diastasis are finally getting some press, but is what you're reading on the internet the whole truth?

Often viewed as two separate topics, the pelvic floor and abdomen are intimately connected and understanding their relationship is critical for anyone working with…well, anyone! Everyone has a pelvic floor and everyone can have diastasis recti.

Learn the anatomy and purpose of the inner core and how to work it most effectively and you'll rejuvenate your tool kit — your clients will be asking for more of your secret sauce. We all have our stories, and for some people they involve traumatic chapters of abuse or neglect. Humans are hard-wired for protection and survival, and when under stress we'll react by either fight, flight, or freeze. Learn how to create a safe space for your students by being trauma-informed.

We'll cover common triggers in the fitness environment, what it looks like if a student is triggered, and simple techniques to regulate the nervous system and promote a healing environment for all. Using the chair as a prop is a wonderful way to bring confidence to our clients who are new to yoga, or have difficulty or are incapable of moving down to the floor.

Learn a full class flow and multi-level options that we can start using straight away for our seniors, pre-natal, obese and post-surgery clients or anyone else who will benefit from a slower paced, safety focused practice. Enabling our students to build strength and flexibility in a non-judgment format. Every exercise professional should be creating a holistic program that improves performance and durability. To be effective, functional exercise should be used as a fundamental component of program design.

Proper exercise progressions — designed to focus on weaknesses while maintaining and progressing strength and power — are a must. Ideally, overall gains in strength, power, and endurance are laid on top of a solid foundation of mobility and motor control.

Lee will discuss the importance of functional exercise, describing and demonstrating how to implement and progress it effectively. Keiser was the first to introduce power and is still a leader in power training across the globe. You'll get the theoretical background behind power training and then get your rear in a saddle to experience its real-world application.

This session will power you up and take away the guess-work of how to add power training effectively to your classes. From the basics of mixing to bar counting and through the different software available, this workshop will give you the tools to produce a professional mix of hand-picked, hand-edited music that perfectly suits the mood, terrain, intensity, and movements of your ride. Are you passionate about your music and looking to learn or improve your mixing skills?

Join master educators Dennis and Javier as they unveil the secrets of creating killer, purposeful playlists! Power has become the hot topic in indoor cycling. Measurement is motivation and, when used properly, it can help members of all fitness levels improve their fitness. Learn what power is, how to coach to it, and how to use it to motivate in a variety of different ways. There is power in Power! Learn how to identify common low back pain triggers. Remember, there is always a cause for back pain!

In this session, you'll be introduced to a system developed by leading back health expert Dr. It will assist you in determining common motions, postures, and loads that are back pain triggers.

You're guaranteed to walk away with a new appreciation of the importance of daily spine hygiene practices and assessment skills that you can apply right away for yourself and your clients. Breathing is the highest priority on the totem pole of life, yet the science and practical application of breathing has skipped past the weight room on its way to the mind-body studio!

This session brings the research into respiration back to strength training and shows how commonly employed breathing techniques actually work to hinder the biomechanics and physiology of the body. Learn how to assess breathing patterns and identify common problems that can lead to chronic postural and orthopedic problems.

You'll leave understanding how properly timed breathing can facilitate optimal movement and enhance performance. This practical session focuses on getting the best results in the shortest amount of time.

Learn efficient and innovative methods to quickly evaluate movement and identify key movement faults to ultimately coach better. Integrating key concepts from the TRX training method, this session will deepen your understanding of human movement and provide a highly effective method of communication that is sure to redefine your coaching standard. Want to have one of the most extraordinary workout experiences of your entire life?

Industry icon Todd Durkin will coach you through an unforgettable workout — vintage 'TD style. You'll laugh, smile, and sweat, all while digging really deep. Do not miss this truly epic session! Using just your eyes and brain, simple observation of your client walking can yield deep insight into areas of potential weakness in the body and injuries just waiting to happen.

Discover how to identify core dysfunction, muscle imbalances, and postural issues with a minute gait analysis and then pinpoint additional assessments that will provide the most information in the shortest time. This highly simple yet effective approach to gait analysis doesn't rely on expensive cameras and equipment, and doesn't require an in-depth understanding of ground reaction forces, biomechanics, and orthotics. This workshop goes far beyond the basics and offers enough variations to last all year!

You'll explore how exercise essences can be enhanced, inspiring a new movement experience. This workshop will spark creativity in programming and allow participants to tap into their innate body wisdom to find alternate variations that best suit their movement potential on any given day. In this workout that brings a mindful flow to mobility, you'll discover how you can use group classes to help people improve mobility, decrease pain, and recover more quickly.

The sitting disease and automation are killing our nervous systems, proprioception, function, metabolism, and mobility.

Today more than ever, our clients and class participants walk in the door deactivated. Even those who work out regularly spend most of their day in low nervous system activation. In this seminar, you'll learn how to use vibration technology to prevent injury, optimize performance, systematically apply warm-up, and prep your clients for life, sport, and working out.

Created by Suaad, this dynamic program is based on traditional ballet conditioning exercises that will shape, sculpt and stretch your booty muscles, increase metabolism, and burn fat to give you the best butt of your life.

Hot Booty Ballet stands out thanks to the use of the Hot Booty Bands which add an element of resistance training to allow for deeper physical benefits. Routines are choreographed to match the lyrics and musicality of each song to take you on a fitness journey. No dance or ballet experience needed! The world of water fitness is slowly embracing the idea of integrating new trends into vertical water training classes and aqua personal training sessions.

We'll examine the challenges and opportunities associated with introducing new aqua concepts from an instructor, participant, and facility programming perspective. Learn how to incorporate yoga postures, mindful breathing techniques, and the latest integrative therapeutic techniques into your work with both children and adults who are navigating the challenges of Attention Deficit Disorder ADD or Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD.

We'll look at the connection between yoga, social-emotional learning, and mindfulness, as well as how 'attunement' — a form of energy work — is used to help those with ADD and ASD both in a yoga session and in everyday life. Promote self-regulation and reconnection within a yoga session and explore how to use those skills in real time.

Exploring the Yamas, the ethical manner in which we interact with the external world, can not only significantly impact our yoga classes but also allow us to better coexist harmoniously with others. Learn how to add texture and variety to all of your classes by embodying the five Yamas in your own way, and how to integrate them smoothly and authentically into your Asanas.

Enjoy the journey through the Yamas that you and your students will benefit from both on and off the mat. The resulting benefits being participants lost significant weight, increased self-esteem, and gained a positive outlook. From revolutions to reps, take away effective ideas that will give your riders the know-how and the tools to add fusion-style rides into their training repertoire and programming.

How many hours do you spend trying to create that perfect ride profile? What if we told you there's an easier way to create purposeful, goal-driven, fun rides — in no time? From beat junkies to power pros — we'll show you the way to cut down on prep time and still deliver measurable results to your classes and clients! If you're going to do it, do it right! While we love motivating the masses on the bike, we know that what we do off the bike is an integral part of a well-balanced fitness program.

We'll take a good look at the ranges of motion and common muscular imbalances involved in indoor cycling. You'll get the tools to create complementary flexibility and strength-based programs to counter the riding position on the bike. Fitness competitions also have a gymnastic element to them.

A study by the Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine found that female bodybuilders who are taking anabolic steroids are more likely to have qualified for substance dependence disorder and have been diagnosed with a psychiatric illness and have a history of sexual abuse. In competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders aspire to develop and maintain an aesthetically pleasing body and balanced physique.

Each competitor also performs a routine to display their physique. A posedown is usually held at the end of a posing round, while judges are finishing their scoring.

Bodybuilders spend a lot of time practising their posing in mirrors. In contrast to strongman or powerlifting competitions, where physical strength is important, or to Olympic weightlifting , where the main point is equally split between strength and technique, bodybuilding competitions typically emphasize condition, size, and symmetry. Different organizations emphasize particular aspects of competition, and sometimes have different categories in which to compete.

The general strategy adopted by most present-day competitive bodybuilders is to make muscle gains for most of the year known as the "off-season" and, approximately 12—14 weeks from competition, attempt to lose body fat referred to as "cutting". The bulking phase entails remaining in a net positive energy balance calorie surplus. The amount of a surplus in which a person remains is based on the person's goals, as a bigger surplus and longer bulking phase will create more fat tissue.

The surplus of calories relative to one's energy balance will ensure that muscles remain in a state of growth. The cutting phase entails remaining in a net negative energy balance calorie deficit. The main goal of cutting is to oxidize fat while preserving as much muscle as possible.

The larger the calorie deficit, the faster one will lose weight. However, a large calorie deficit will also create the risk of losing muscle tissue. The bulking and cutting strategy is effective because there is a well-established link between muscle hypertrophy and being in a state of positive energy balance [19]. A sustained period of caloric surplus will allow the athlete to gain more fat-free mass than they could otherwise gain under eucaloric conditions.

Some gain in fat mass is expected, which athletes seek to oxidize in a cutting period while maintaining as much fat-free mass as possible. Many non-competitive bodybuilders choose not to adopt the conventional strategy, as it often results in significant unwanted fat gain during the "bulking" phase.

The attempt to increase muscle mass in one's body without any gain in fat is called clean bulking. Competitive bodybuilders focus their efforts to achieve a peak appearance during a brief "competition season". A common tactic for keeping fat low and muscle mass high would be to have higher calorie and lower calorie days to maintain a balance between gain and loss.

Many clean bulk diets start off with a moderate amount of carbs, moderate amount of protein, and a decently low amount of fats, "Gaining lean muscle means going for leaner cuts of meat, like flank steaks and fillets, chicken, and, of course, fish," says White.

Macronutrient goals will be different for each person, but, it is ideal to get as close as possible. Weightlifters who are attempting to gain mass quickly often choose to use the "dirty bulk" method. In the week leading up to a contest, bodybuilders may decrease their consumption of water , sodium , and carbohydrates , the former two to alter how water is retained by the body and the latter to reduce glycogen in the muscle.

The day before the show, water is removed from the diet, and diuretics may be introduced, while carbohydrate loading is undertaken to increase the size of the muscles through replenishment of their glycogen. The goal is to maximize leanness and increase the visibility of veins, or " vascularity ". The appearance of veins is further enhanced immediately before appearing on stage by darkening the skin through tanning products and applying oils to the skin to increase shine.

Some competitors will eat sugar-rich foods to increase the visibility of their veins. A final step is the use of weights to fill the muscles with blood and further increase their size.

Bodybuilders often shorten these three steps into the well-known motto "eat clean, train hard, sleep well". Weight training causes micro-tears to the muscles being trained; this is generally known as microtrauma. These micro-tears in the muscle contribute to the soreness felt after exercise, called delayed onset muscle soreness DOMS. It is to repair this micro-trauma that result in muscle growth. Normally, this soreness becomes most apparent a day or two after a workout.

However, as muscles become adapted to the exercises, soreness tends to decrease. Weight training aims to build muscle by prompting two different types of hypertrophy: Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy leads to larger muscles and so is favored by bodybuilders more than myofibrillar hypertrophy, which builds athletic strength. Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy is triggered by increasing repetitions, whereas myofibrillar hypertrophy is triggered by lifting heavier weight.

However, the emphasis is different. Many trainees like to cycle between the two methods in order to prevent the body from adapting maintaining a progressive overload , possibly emphasizing whichever method more suits their goals. However, no real evidence has been provided to show that trainees ever reach this plateau, and rather was more of a hype created from "muscular confusion".

The high levels of muscle growth and repair achieved by bodybuilders require a specialized diet. Generally speaking, bodybuilders require more calories than the average person of the same weight to provide the protein and energy requirements needed to support their training and increase muscle mass.

A sub-maintenance level of food energy is combined with cardiovascular exercise to lose body fat in preparation for a contest.

The ratios of calories from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats vary depending on the goals of the bodybuilder. Carbohydrates play an important role for bodybuilders. They give the body energy to deal with the rigors of training and recovery. Carbohydrates also promote secretion of insulin , a hormone enabling cells to get the glucose they need. Insulin also carries amino acids into cells and promotes protein synthesis. This is important as high-glycemic carbohydrates cause a sharp insulin response, which places the body in a state where it is likely to store additional food energy as fat.

However, bodybuilders frequently do ingest some quickly digesting sugars often in form of pure dextrose or maltodextrin after a workout.

This may help to replenish glycogen stored within the muscle, and to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. The motor proteins actin and myosin generate the forces exerted by contracting muscles. Chicken, turkey, beef, pork, fish, eggs and dairy foods are high in protein, as are some nuts, seeds, beans, and lentils. Casein or whey are often used to supplement the diet with additional protein.

Whey protein is the type of protein contained in many popular brands of protein supplements and is preferred by many bodybuilders because of its high Biological Value BV and quick absorption rates. However, whey has a bigger effect than Casein on insulin levels. Whey triggers about double the amount of insulin release.

Bodybuilders are usually thought to require protein with a higher BV than that of soy , which is additionally avoided due to its claimed estrogenic properties.

Still, some nutrition experts believe that soy, flax seeds and many other plants that contain the weak estrogen-like compounds or phytoestrogens can be used beneficially, as phytoestrogens compete with estrogens for receptor sites in the male body and can block its actions. This can also include some inhibition of pituitary functions while stimulating the P system the system that eliminates hormones, drugs and metabolic waste product from the body in the liver to more actively process and excrete excess estrogen.

Contrary to certain rumors that animal-based protein is more suitable to trigger muscle growth than plant-based protein, a study by Mangano et al. In contrast, if combined properly plant-based protein even has a higher biological quality. A combination of one part wheat protein e. Some bodybuilders, such as Patrik Baboumian and Robert Cheeke , follow a strict vegan diet.

Bodybuilders often split their food intake for the day into 5 to 7 meals of roughly equal nutritional content and attempt to eat at regular intervals e.

This method can serve two purposes: Contrary to popular belief, eating more frequently does not increase basal metabolic rate when compared to the traditional 3 meals a day. While food does have a metabolic cost to digest, absorb, and store, called the thermic effect of food , it depends on the quantity and type of food, not how the food is spread across the meals of the day.

Well-controlled studies using whole-body calorimetry and doubly labeled water have demonstrated that there is no metabolic advantage to eating more frequently. The important role of nutrition in building muscle and losing fat means bodybuilders may consume a wide variety of dietary supplements.

There are three major macronutrients that the human body needs in order for muscle building. The major nutrients — protein, carbohydrate, and fat — provide the body with energy. Some bodybuilders use drugs such as anabolic steroids and precursor substances such as prohormones to increase muscle hypertrophy.

Anabolic steroids cause muscle hypertrophy of both types I and II of muscle fibers caused likely by an increased synthesis of muscle proteins and are accompanied with undesired side effects including hepatotoxicity , gynecomastia , acne , the early onset of male pattern baldness and a decline in the body's own testosterone production, which can cause testicular atrophy.

Muscle growth is more difficult to achieve in older adults than younger adults because of biological aging , which leads to many metabolic changes detrimental to muscle growth; for instance, by diminishing growth hormone and testosterone. Some recent clinical studies have shown that low-dose HGH treatment for adults with HGH deficiency changes the body composition by increasing muscle mass, decreasing fat mass, increasing bone density and muscle strength, improves cardiovascular parameters, and affects the quality of life without significant side effects.

A recent trend in bodybuilding is to inject synthol [47] into muscles to create larger bulges, or injecting PMMA into muscles to shape them. Although muscle stimulation occurs in the gym or home gym when lifting weights, muscle growth occurs afterward during rest.

Without adequate rest and sleep 6 to 8 hours , muscles do not have an opportunity to recover and build. About eight hours of sleep a night is desirable for the bodybuilder to be refreshed, although this varies from person to person.

Some individual bodybuilders add a massage , sometimes by professional masseuse, massager or masseur at the end of each workout to their routine as a method of recovering. Overtraining occurs when a bodybuilder has trained to the point where his workload exceeds his recovery capacity. More recently, a study found that muscle protein synthesis measured over 48 hours after an exercise bout did not correlate with muscle mass gains in untrained subjects at the beginning of an exercise training program, but it did at three weeks of training and onwards Damas, While untrained subjects have a large increase in muscle protein synthesis after their initial exercise sessions, they also have a lot of muscle damage.

So muscle protein synthesis is mainly used to repair damaged muscle protein, not to grow. After just 3 weeks of training, muscle damage is diminished, and the increase in muscle protein synthesis is actually used to hypertrophy muscles. So do these studies show that muscle protein synthesis predicts muscle mass gains, but only in the right context. A huge benefit of muscle protein synthesis studies is that they are more sensitive than studies that measure actual muscle mass gains.

This means that muscle protein synthesis studies can detect an anabolic effect easier than long term studies which simply miss it long term studies might draw the wrong conclusion that something does not benefit muscle growth when it actually does. Muscle mass gain is simply a very slow process. You need to do a huge study, with a huge amount of subjects, who consume additional protein for many months, before you will actually see a measurable effect of protein supplementation.

We performed a meta-analysis combining the results of individual studies on the effect of protein supplementation on muscle mass gains. We demonstrated that only 5 studies concluded that protein supplementation had a benefit, while 17 did not! However, most of the studies that showed no significant benefit, did show a small non-significant benefit. When you combine all those results, you increase the statistical power and you can conclude that protein supplementation actually does improve muscle mass.

So in this case, most long-term studies gave the wrong impression, and muscle protein synthesis studies are actually preferred. There are a lot of long-term studies that have a relative small number of subjects and a small study duration and conclude that an intervention did not work for example, protein supplementation, or X versus Y set of exercise for example.

However, the studies were doomed to begin with. They needed to be 3 times as big and 2 times as long to have a chance to find a positive effect.

Now if the effect of giving additional protein is already extremely hard to detect in long-term studies, how realistic is it to find smaller effects?

For example, optimizing protein intake distribution throughout the day has been shown to optimize muscle protein synthesis rates Mamerow, Areta, However, this effect is smaller than adding another protein meal. So the effect of protein distribution is almost impossible to find in a long-term study. For such a research question, acute muscle protein synthesis studies are simply much better suited.

The second big benefit of muscle protein synthesis studies is that they give a lot more mechanistic insight. They help you understand WHY a certain protein is good or not that good at stimulating muscle protein synthesis for example, its digestion properties, amino acid composition etc.

These kinds of insights help to better understand what triggers muscle growth and come up with new research questions. These kind of insights are very hard to obtain in long-term studies, which typically only show the end result of the mechanisms.

The benefits of measuring muscle protein synthesis include the sensitivity, controlled environment, and they allow you to investigate questions that are almost impossible to answer in long-term studies. Again, we do both and each has its purpose and build on each other. Usually, muscle protein synthesis studies are performed to see if something work as they are very sensitive and why it works. Only when you have both, you have pretty convincing evidence that your intervention does what you claim it to do.

Multiple sets increase muscle protein synthesis more than a single set Burd, A higher weekly training volume number of sets to muscle results in a greater muscle mass gains Schoenfeld, It is often recommended that a rep range of reps per set is optimal for muscle growth. For novice untrained individuals with no RT experience or who have not trained for several years training, it is recommended that loads correspond to a repetition range of an repetition maximum RM.

For intermediate individuals with approximately 6 months of consistent RT experience to advanced individuals with years of RT experience training, it is recommended that individuals use a wider loading range from 1 to 12 RM in a periodized fashion with eventual emphasis on heavy loading RM using 3- to 5-min rest periods between sets. However, these recommendations lack evidence. The main takeaway here is that there are no magic rep ranges that are superior for muscle growth.

It is unclear whether each set should be taken to failure. Muscular failure decreases performance on subsequent sets, thereby reducing training volume. Perhaps performing a set with reps left in the tank will still give a near-maximal stimulus to the muscle, without much of the associated fatigue. If sets are not taken close to failure, the muscle protein synthetic response will be small Burd, But at least in untrained subjects, training close to failure appears to produce similar muscle mass gains as training to complete failure Nóbrega, A longer rest period between sets increases the larger post-exercise muscle protein synthetic response compared to a short rest period 5 vs 1 min McKendry, In agreement, a longer interset rest period improves muscle mass gains compared to a shorter rest period 3 vs 1 min Schoenfeld, A single bout of resistance exercise can stimulate muscle protein synthesis for longer than 72 hour, but peaks at 24 h Miller, Indeed, training each muscle group at least twice a week results in larger muscle mass gains Schoenfeld, The total muscle protein synthetic MPS response determined by the increase in MPS rates and the duration of these increased rates is decreased in trained subjects compared to untrained subjects Damas, However, the pattern of this decreased response is differs between mixed muscle protein synthesis the synthesis of all types of muscle proteins and myofibrillar protein synthesis the synthesis of contractile proteins: The increase in mixed muscle protein synthesis is shorter lived in trained subjects.

In contrast, myofibrillar protein synthesis rates do not increase as much in trained subjects, but the duration of the increase does not appear impacted. The larger increase in the total muscle protein synthetic response seems like a logical explanation why untrained people can make faster much gains than experienced lifters. However, this is not necessarily true. In untrained subjects, there is not only a large increase myofibrillar protein synthesis, but also in muscle damage following resistance exercise.

A large portion of the myofibrillar protein synthesis is used to simply repair damaged muscle proteins, rather than growing muscle proteins. In more trained subjects, here is a smaller increase in myofibrillar protein synthesis, but there is also much less or even minimal muscle damage following resistance exercise just weeks of training is enough to see these effects.

This means that in a trained state, the increase in myofibrillar protein synthesis can actually be used to actually increase muscle mass. When you correct for muscle damage, myofibrillar protein synthesis rates measured over 48 hour post-exercise recovery are similair in untrained subjects and after 10 weeks of training Damas, Of course, most athletes would hardly consider someone trained after just 10 weeks.

Unfortunately, little is know about how years of serious training impacts the muscle protein synthetic response to resistance exercise. Twenty gram of protein gives a near-maximal increase in MPS after lower body resistance.

When data of several studies was combined and the amount of protein was expressed per bodyweight, it was found that on average 0. However, the authors suggest a safety margin of 2 standard deviations to account for inter-intervidual variability, resulting in a dose of protein that would optimally stimulate MPS at an intake of 0.

More recently, it has been shown that the amount of lean body mass does not impact the response to protein ingestion Macnaughton, The authors speculated that this was related to the fact that this was following a session of whole-body resistance exercise compared to the lower-body exercise used in previous studies. Protein sources differ in their capacity to stimulate MPS. This is best illustrated by study which compared the muscle protein synthetic response to casein, casein hydrolysate and whey protein.

Casein is a slowly digesting protein. When intact casein is hydrolysed chemically cut into smaller smaller pieces , it resembles the digestion of a fast digesting protein. Consequently, hydrolyzed whey results higher MPS rates than intact casein. However, the muscle protein synthetic response to hydrolyzed is lower than that of whey protein.

While both proteins are fast digesting, whey protein has a higher essential amino acid content including leucine Pennings, Animal based protein sources are typically have a high essential amino acid content and appears more potent than plant protein to stimulate MPS Van Vliet, However, there this can potentially compensated by ingesting a greater amount of plant protein Gorissen, Leucine is the amino acid that is thought to be most potent at stimulating MPS.

Peak plasma leucine concentrations following protein ingestion typically correlate with muscle protein synthesis rates Pennings, This supports the notion that protein digestion rate and protein leucine content are important predictors for anabolic effect of a protein source. This is best illustrated by study which compared the muscle protein synthetic response to five different supplemental protocol:. All five conditions increased muscle protein synthesis rates compared to fasting conditions.

As expected from our earlier discussion on the optimal amount of protein, 25 gram of protein increased MPS rates more than just 6. Interestingly, the addition of 2. The addition of a larger amount of leucine 4. This indicates that the addition of a relatively small amount of leucine to a low dose of protein can be as effective as a much larger total amount of protein.

Isoleucine and valine use the same transporter for uptake in the gut as leucine. Therefore, it is speculated that isoleucine and valine compete for uptake with leucine, resulting in a less rapid leucine peak which is thought to be an important determinant of MPS rates.

Carbohydrates slows down protein digestion, but have no effect on MPS Gorissen, In agreement, adding large amounts of carbohydrates to protein does not improve post-exercise MPS rates Koopman, However, the addition of carbohydrates to post-exercise protein has no effect on muscle protein synthesis or breakdown rates.

The effects of insulin on muscle protein breakdown rates are described in more detail in section 2, and the effects of insulin on muscle protein synthesis are further described in section 7. Adding oil to protein does not slow down protein digestion or MPS Gorissen, It possible that oil simply floats on top of a protein shake in the stomach, and that a solid fat would delay digestion. One study has reported a greater increase in net muscle balance following full-fat milk compared to fat-free milk although this study used the 2 pool arterio-venous model which is not the most reliable measurement.

Most research has looked at isolated protein supplements in liquid form such as whey and casein shakes. This supports the protein dose-response relationship observed with protein supplements where 20 g of protein gives a near maximal increase in MPS.

Minced beef is more rapidly digested than beef steak, indicating that food texture impacts protein digestion. However, there was no difference in MPS between these protein sources. Beef protein is more rapidly digested than milk protein. However, milk protein stimulated MPS more than beef in the 2 hours. Between 2 and 5 hours, there was no significant difference between the sources.

This indicates that digestion speed does not always predict the muscle protein synthetic response of a protein source. As discussed in the previous section, the addition of carbohydrate powder or oil to a liquid protein shake does not impact muscle protein synthesis. However, it is unknown how the components of large mixed meals interact. For example, the addition whole-foods carbohydrates such rice, potatoes, or bread to whole-food protein sources such as chicken.

It can be speculated that the protein in mixed meals is less rapidly digested, which is typically but not certainly not always associated with a lower increase in MPS.

As described in my systematic review, insulin does not stimulate MPS Trommelen, Regardless whether insulin levels were kept low similar to fasted levels or very high, MPS rates were the same in all conditions. In my systematic review, I describe the effect of insulin in other conditions including in the absence of amino acid infusion, but the conclusion remains that insulin does not stimulate MPS under normal conditions Trommelen, In the bodybuilding world, insulin is sometimes injected at supraphysiological doses to stimulate muscle growth.

Insulin inhibits muscle protein breakdown a bit, but only a little is needed for the maximal effect this is discussed in dept in section XXX.

Exercise improves the muscle protein synthetic response to protein ingestion. Therefore, it has been suggested that protein intake immediately post-exercise is more anabolic than protein ingestion at different time points. Probably the best evidence to support the concept of protein timing is a study which showed that protein ingestion immediately after exercise was more effective than protein ingestion 3 h post-exercise though this study used the 2 pool arterio-venous method which is not a great measurement of muscle protein synthesis Levenhagen, In contrast, a different study observed no difference in MPS was found when essential amino acid were ingested 1 h or 3 h post-exercise Rasmussen, In addition, resistance exercise enhances the muscle protein synthetic response to protein ingestion for at least 24 hour Burd, It is certainly possible that the synergy between exercise and protein ingestion is the largest immediately post-exercise and then slowly declines in the next 24 h hour.

However, these data suggest that there is not a limited window of opportunity during which protein is massively beneficial immediately post-exercise, that suddenly closes within a couple of hours.

Overal, no clear benefit to protein timing has been found in studies measuring muscle protein synthesis studies.

As such studies are much more sensitive to detect potential anabolic effects compared to long-term studies measuring changes in muscle mass, it unlikely that long-term studies will observe benefits of protein timing. However, this effect was largely explained by the fact that the protein supplementation increased total protein intake, rather than the specific timing of protein intake. An even balance of protein intake at breakfast, lunch and dinner stimulates MPS more effective than eating the majority of daily protein during the evening meal Marerow, Providing 20 g of protein every 3 hours stimulates MPS more than providing the same amount of protein in less regular doses 40 g every 6 hours , or more regular doses 10 g every 1.

The muscle full effect is the observation that amino acids stimulate MPS for a short period, after which there is a refractory period where the muscle does not respond to amino acids. More specifically, after protein intake, there is an lag period of approximately min before MPS goes up and peaks between minutes, after which MPS returns rapidly to baseline even if amino acid levels are still elevated Bohe, Atherthon, The muscle full effect has given birth to a theory on how to optimize protein intake throughout the day in the online fitness community.

It suggests that after amino acids levels have been elevated, you should let them drop down back to fasting levels to sensitize the muscle to amino acids again. Subsequently, protein intake will stimulate MPS again. The suggested mechanism seems unlikely as many food patterns result in elevated amino acid levels throughout the whole day. The traditional bodybuilding diet consists of very frequent, very high protein meals e. In fact, it was specifically designed with the goal of keeping amino acids elevated throughout the whole day so there would always be enough building blocks for form new muscle tissue.

Or intermittent fasting where all daily protein is eaten in a short time period usually 8 hours. This is best illustrated in a study where the effect of protein was assessed in both rested and post-exercise conditions Churchward-Venne, Protein intake alone stimulates MPS in the h period after ingestion. Subsequently, MPS rates fall back to basal rates. However, in post-exercise condition, protein stimulated MPS rates in both the h and the h period. It appears that the muscle full effect is not present in acute post-exercise conditions.

As discussed above, an effective protein distribution optimizes MPS. Only three days of dieting already reduce basal MPS Areta, This shows that an energy deficit is suboptimal for MPS, however you can grow muscle mass while losing fat Longland, It is unclear if eating above maintenance is needed to optimize MPS. Second, I will continue to further elaborate sections based on your feedback and add additional sections in the future.

Lastly, please reference specific sections from this article when you see a discussion on muscle protein synthesis. People mistaking whole-body protein synthesis for muscle protein synthesis: Someone skeptical about a conclusion from a paper because muscle protein breakdown was not measured?

Someone claiming that protein supplementation is not effective based on a long-term study he read that found no improvement in muscle mass: Feel free to ask me questions about the methods, or interpretation on protein metabolism studies in comments or on Facebook. Especially the difference between mixed protein synth and myofibr protein synth.

The mixed protein synthesis data is often used by proponents of very high frequencies Damas study as they point out MPS drops strongly after 10 hours in trained individuals.

The mixed protein synthesis data is not that relevant when you also have myofibrilar protein synthesis data that suggests otherwise. The current picture we now have on myoPS does not support an increased frequency, at least not higher than in untrained subjects where the duration of myoPS appears the same.

It could be speculated that in a more trained status, you need a higher volume number of sets close to failure to get a robust increase in myoPS again, but that is pure speculation. You mentioned in your summary how you just need to eat at maintenance to build muscle.

In your opinion, is body recomposition possible then? But we know very little on how energy intake influences muscle protein synthesis. In practice, people report that bulking helps to gain muscle. If bulking helps to gain muscle, how big should be caloric surplus be to optimize muscle mass gains without disproportional large increases in fat mass? Personally, I would go for a very small caloric deficits when cutting and a very small caloric surplus during bulking. What a briljant article once again.

I believe, that this is one of the few sites that literally, contains the key of an better progress….. Somewhere, and im not sure if it was you,, but perhaps on another site there was a article about optimal training for MPS..

It seems that a FB routine is optimal for MPS as it is elevated for certain time and you train again when the mps is down to base-lines again. But what about a FB while cutting? Would it still be optimal you think? There is a lot of people speculating on optimal training frequencies based on MPS data.

I like keeping your training the same as much as possible while cutting. So much info that needs to be unpacked with so many questions. I just read an article from Eric Bach, regarding Norwegian study of two groups performing same volume. Both groups recently competed in powerlifting event within 6 months. The groups tested the same volume of work and one group trained 3 days a week, but did twice the volume while the other group trained 6 days a week.

Now they did the same workouts on the same reoutine days. The group who worked out 6 days a week had an increase in muscle growth and strength. Not by much, as they are seasoned trainers, but gains are gains.

Thanks for diligent research for pleasure. What I find disturbing of the Areta et al. I would love to see a similar design with a higher protein intake.

In the work by Areta et al, there were 2 muscle biopsies: Both time points are used to get 1 value: I understand your other concerns. In short, this was the first study to investigate if protein distribution can impact post-exercise MPS and was designed in such a way that it would be most likely a positive effect would detected if it exists.

Indeed it found that protein distribution could impact MPS. As it was the first study to ever investigate and show this, it has a very high scientific value. In contrast, in has much less value in practitioners eyes, because you can question if the results from this study would extend to more real life situations.

Being the first to show evidence of a concept protein distribution can impact MPS is a big deal in science. Of course this concept now needs to be studied under different, more real life conditions. Practitioners are going to say that these studies are designed better, but such follow up studies will be less impactful in the science community. Simply 2 different worlds with different interests.

It appears you need a slightly longer energy deficit period before energy intake starts limiting MPS 3 days of dieting, see Areta What I think you should take away from this study from a practical point of view: Muscle biopsies were taken at -0 pre-exercise, and 1, 4, 6, 7 and 12 h post-exercise.

But more importantly, the dose of 10 gr in the spread group is simply sub-optimal, regardless of distribution. The exact same experiment could be conducted with more protein and that would take away a lot of the doubt concerning the sub-optimal dose issue with the pulse group imo. Do you mean this study with Areta et al. And what objections are there to carrying out an experiment like this in the non-fasted state? The main outcome of that study is the FSR measured between h, The FSR assessed during specific intervals is interesting to provide some additional insight in how protein distribution patterns modulate the MPS time course.

However, the aggregate response is what actually matters. In the olympic spirit: But in the end, the medal goes to the one with the highest average speed over the entire race in this case: There is not really such a threshold, there is a linear increase in MPS following protein intake.

Furthermore, if you look at the plasma data, the pulse group actually reaches a higher peak leucine than the 20 g group, and is higher at more time points than the leucine group. With higher protein intakes, it is likely there would be no difference between the 3 groups. All 3 would likely maximally stimulate MPS.

This study simply tried to demonstrate for the that protein distribution can impact MPS. It was the first study to demonstrate this, and therefore it is a big deal in our field. It did not try to demonstrate that that a pulse pattern or eating every 1. Obviously, that depends on the total amount of protein ingested. Note that the 80 g protein ingested in 12 h translates to g protein in 16 waking hours, or a protein intake of 1. That is exactly the amount athletes typically eat. If total protein intake was much higher, likely all 3 groups would have had maximal MPS rates with no difference between groups.

From a scientific point of view, that finding would not not really be valuable. I can come up with another couple of thousand study ideas that do not modulate MPS. Finding new things that actually can modulate MPS is much more valuable.

Having said that, now it is established that protein distribution can modulate MPS, a follow up study that shows that protein distribution has little impact on MPS when total protein intake is high, would be valuable. With regards to energy intake: That was after eating nothing except the protein with or without the carbs in the last 18 h. An objection to doing the study in a non-fasted state would be that other food intake would delay protein digestion.

As a result, it would be less likely that the bolus group would differ from the intermediate group, and less likely that the intermediate group from the pulse group.

Another design consideration is the protein source. It is likely that you would see much less of an effect of protein distribution when you have a slowly digesting protein source. Again, it is much more valuable to first establish that a concept that have influence, and then do follow up work to see if that concept also works in different concepts.

Like I mentioned in my previous post, that is the difference between scientific relevance, and relevance to practitioners. They simply have other priorities. Yes, 4 four meals of 60 g spaced by hour should be very to close to maximizing your gains.

Do you mean actual protein researchers? Because none of the top muscle metabolism labs use nitrogen balance anymore as measurement tool to evaluate the anabolic effect on muscles. I am confused because Dr. And get this, they have science to support their recommendations. This is based on research showing that if you consume a protein meal or essential amino acids , it boosts muscle protein synthesis for only about two hours without another boost in protein synthesis coming for at least another six hours even when adequate amino acids are present.

If you then consume more protein say, another protein shake two hours later, there would be no additional boost in muscle protein synthesis. However, if you wait about six hours or longer to consume that second protein shake, you would get another big increase in muscle protein synthesis. So it makes sense that to maximize muscle growth, you should wait a good six hours between meals so that every meal you eat boosts muscle protein synthesis.

Granted, protein synthesis is very important. However, just because you have a boost in muscle protein synthesis does NOT mean you get an increase in muscle growth. Muscle growth is a balance between muscle protein synthesis the build up of muscle protein and muscle protein breakdown the breaking down of muscle protein. To get an increase in muscle growth means that muscle protein synthesis must be greater than muscle protein breakdown. Muscle protein breakdown is happening all the time.

What the aforementioned experts are missing by suggesting that you should wait up to six hours between meals is that, while protein synthesis may be maximized, so is muscle protein breakdown, which minimizes any gains you would get in muscle growth. The best way to maximize muscle growth is to eat a high protein meal at least grams of protein, depending on the protein source every hours.

How do I know this? The first year of life is the most critical for rapidly gaining mass. And to ensure that this happens, we have evolved to eat every hours. As soon as they step up their meal frequency they also step up their muscle mass and strength gains. The Aussie researchers had subjects perform a leg workout and then fed them a total of 80 grams of whey protein over the next 12 hours in three different methods: Greater protein net balance essentially means more muscle growth.

Latency and duration of stimulation of human muscle protein synthesis during continuous infusion of amino acids. Daytime pattern of post-exercise protein intake affects whole-body protein turnover in resistance-trained males. You wrote that Jim says that a positive nitrogen balance is more important than MPS, but from his article I think you ment he says a positive protein balance is more important?

Protein balance is not the same as nitrogen balance see section 3. In section 2, I explain that muscle protein balance almost entirely depends on MPS muscle protein breakdown has little influence. So the measurements in that study are not relevant for muscle. And the funny thing is, is that even if the measurements were relevant to building muscle, the WHOLE-BODY protein breakdown was the same for the group that ate every 3 hours and the group that ate every 6.

Although I got the PhD, I am much more of a practitioner, and need to dispel a lot of misinformation my patients received from online communities. Having someone else with a PhD saying it makes it even harder.

In regards to the nitrogen balance issue, most exercise physiologists I took classes under flatly denounced any benefit to eating beyond neutral nitrogen balance. Not sure if this was just an old school mentality, or the fact that they did no research in the realm of resistance training or muscle synthesis, but it was surprisingly pervasive.

It was especially alarming as a nutrition grad student, where it was basically common knowledge that nitrogen balance was not all that useful in relation to increased muscle protein. Great article — I will definitely add your website to my list of evidence-based fitness and nutrition. If I go to the gym early in the morning with an empty stomach is that a bad strategy for maximize gains??? In the same situation how can u spread the meals throughout the day?? Fasting is not going to be optimal for muscle mass gains.

For optimal muscle mass gains, you should try to never be fasted and always have some protein in your system probably meals spread out throughout the day.

However, the befit of optimally distributing protein over the day compared to intermittent fasting is relatively small. So if you love intermittent fasting and it allows you to not obsess over food, helps with diet adherence, makes you more productive etc, it can be a very effective approach for you. But for the absolute the best effect on muscle mass gains, a higher meal frequency would be a little bit better. Jorn it might be worth mentioning in the sections on protein intake that the bolus needed does go up with age.

Just in case some old guy like me reads your piece, which they will if I have anything to do with it! In older adults, 40 g protein clearly outperforms smaller amounts of protein. Higher doses of protein have not been tested. So ideally, you want at least 40 g protein at each meal as an older adult. Leucine supplementation might be an effective strategy to enhance the MPS response to meals that contain less than 40 g of protein.

Can you comment on this belief? A friend advised me that a very effective way to lose weight was to cycle to exhaustion and then not eat for several hours after completion. My fear is that this would promote muscle loss, like doing a resistant work-out and not eating afterwards.

Can you comment on this? Protein can be converted to glucose. Your liver glycogen sustains you plasma glucose levels. There are dozens of studies done where subjects get protein without carbs after not eating in the last 10 hours. In addition, adding carbs to protein does not help to build more muscle. There is absolutely nothing magical about cycling to exhaustion other that it burns some calories. There is absolutely nothing magical about not eating for several hours after exercise, other than that is helps with lowering your caloric intake.

Not eating directly after exercise is not necessarily a big deal with regards to muscle loss, as total protein intake during the day is the most important variable for muscle mass. However, there is no logical reason to wait hours.

Ideally, you eat meals high in protein a protein shake can already count as one of those meals to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis rates throughout the day. If I am reading your reply right, you are saying that with regards to protein synthesis, protein is the only macro-nutrient that affects it, the amount of carbohydrates and fats consumed is of little significance. Am I understanding you right?

If this is true then one should be able to achieve maximum muscle gain while simultaneously achieving maximum fat loss by being on a high protein low calorie diet. In other words, you just need some protein to maximize MPS regardless of what you eat along with it or have eaten in the previous 12 h. However, that only works short-term.

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