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Master of Public Health - Coursework
Background Hannah was raised on a mixed crop and livestock farm in Kondinin WA, where her parents and older brother still farm. Semester 1, Semester 2. Rosen, MD Connecticut Framing a distant colony. During this time Rob developed specialist knowledge in spray application technology and crop disease management along with sound expertise in all facets of crop and pasture agronomy. The largest absolute increases in total numbers of YLDs globally were between the ages of 40 and 69 years.

The Lancet

Living Soils: The Role of Microorganisms in Soil Health

A near decade-long collaboration between the CSIRO and the Bio-platforms Australia company ranks the understanding of soil microbial communities as important as mapping the galaxies in the universe or the biodiversity of the oceans. It provides an opportunity to discover new species currently unknown to science. Soil microbial communities underpin the productivity of all agricultural enterprises and are primary drivers in ecological processes such as the nutrient and carbon cycling, degradation of contaminants and suppression of soil-borne diseases.

They are also intimately involved in a range of beneficial and, at times essential, interrelationships with plants. Soil microbiology is the study of organisms in soil, their functions and how they affect soil properties. Soil microorganisms can be classified as bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, algae, protozoa and viruses. Each of these groups has different characteristics that define the organisms and different functions in the soil it lives in. Bacteria are organisms that have only one cell and are, therefore, microscopic.

There are anywhere from million to one billion bacteria in just a teaspoon of moist, fertile soil. They are decomposers, eating dead plant material and organic waste. By doing this, the bacteria release nutrients that other organisms could not access.

The bacteria do this by changing the nutrients from inaccessible to usable forms. The process is essential in the nitrogen cycle. Actinomycetes are soil microorganisms like both bacteria and fungi, and have characteristics linking them to both groups.

They are often believed to be the missing evolutionary link between bacteria and fungi, but they have many more characteristics in common with bacteria than they do fungi. Actinomycetes give soil its characteristic smell.

They have also been the source of several significant therapeutic medicines. Fungi are unusual organisms, in that they are not plants or animals. They group themselves into fibrous strings called hyphae. The hyphae then form groups called mycelium which are less than 0.

They are helpful, but could also be harmful, to soil organisms. Fungi are helpful because they have the ability to break down nutrients that other organisms cannot. They then release them into the soil, and other organisms get to use them. Fungi can attach themselves to plant roots. Most plants grow much better when this happens. This is a beneficial relationship called mycorrhizal. The fungi help the plant by giving it needed nutrients and the fungi get carbohydrates from the plant, the same food that plants give to humans.

On the other hand, fungi can get food by being parasites and attaching themselves to plants or other organisms for selfish reasons.

Algae are present in most of the soils where moisture and sunlight are available. Their number in the soil usually ranges from to 10, per gram of soil. They are capable of photosynthesis, whereby they and obtain carbon dioxide from atmosphere and energy from sunlight and synthesise their own food.

These are colourless, single-celled animal-like organisms. They are larger than bacteria, varying from a few microns to a few millimetres. Their population in arable soil ranges from 10, to , per gram of soil and they are abundant in surface soil.

They can withstand adverse soil conditions, as they are characterised by a protected, dormant stage in their life cycle. Soil viruses are of great importance, as they may influence the ecology of soil biological communities through both an ability to transfer genes from host to host and as a potential cause of microbial mortality.

Consequently, viruses are major players in global cycles, influencing the turnover and concentration of nutrients and gases. Despite this importance, the subject of soil virology is understudied.

To explore the role of the viruses in plant health and soil quality, studies are being conducted into virus diversity and abundance in different geographic areas ecosystems. It has been found that viruses are highly abundant in all the areas studied so far, even in circumstances where bacterial populations differ significantly in the same environments. Soils probably harbour many novel viral species that, together, may represent a large reservoir of genetic diversity.

Some researchers believe that investigating this largely unexplored diversity of soil viruses has the potential to transform our understanding of the role of viruses in global ecosystem processes and the evolution of microbial life itself. Not microorganisms strictly speaking , nematode worms are typically 50 microns in diameter and one millimetre in length. Species responsible for plant diseases have received much attention, but far less is known about much of the nematode community, which play beneficial roles in soil.

An incredible variety of nematodes have been found to function at several levels of the soil food web. Some feed on the plants and algae the first level , others are grazers that feed on bacteria and fungi second level , and some feed on other nematodes higher levels. Peter has extensive research and project management experience. A leader of agricultural communications and a herbicide resistant weeds specialist.

This role involves taking AHRI research, as well as other information about managing herbicide resistant weeds, and communicating it to the Australian grains industry. The priority is to keep agronomists updated on the latest research to enable them to continually improve the management of herbicide resistant weeds.

Peter is based in Geraldton, and spends some of his time travelling to Perth and around the country to fulfil this role. Peter grew up in the suburbs of Perth. It was family Easter holidays to Tardun in the north eastern wheatbelt of WA where his uncle managed a large property that sparked his interest in Agriculture. As he grew older, Peter spent more time working on the farm which ultimately led him to study agriculture at university after which he commenced his career in grain cropping.

Peter worked as an advisor with the Department of Agriculture in Three Springs and then Geraldton for several years before embarking on two years of backpacking around the world. From here he worked as an agronomist with Elders covering the Mingenew area before moving back to the Department of Agriculture and Food for thirteen years where he researched and extended herbicide resistant weeds with support from GRDC. Peter commenced work with Planfarm in January Married to the very beautiful and always delightful Lizzie, and father of the two sweetest girls on the planet, India 7 and Saskia 5.

When he is not working or spending time with family he is generally in the ocean either surfing, windsurfing, kite surfing, stand-up paddle boarding, diving or fishing. When the ocean is no good he may even been seen doing an occasional triathlon, playing touch football or playing guitar and singing in the amazing Geraldton cover band, The Blue Bone Gropers.

Hilary has experience in management planning for crop and pasture optimization. Site specific strategic advisor on Pesticides and Herbicides with Rotational and Nutritional expertise. Hilary grew up moving around Victoria and NSW and was associated with farming though family friends. Visiting farms as a child lead to a keen interest in agriculture. After graduating, she worked for Landmark, in Narrogin, for a couple of years developing her agronomic skills Hilary then joined Planfarm in with an excellent science background, having won several scholarships including, the GRDC Undergraduate Honours Scholarship and the Grower Group Alliance Student Scholarship Hilary and her husband live on a farm north east of Cuballing where Hilary will offer a hand on the farm when possible.

In her spare time, she enjoys gardening and working on projects around the house. Dani is experienced in broad-acre crop and pasture management. She provides strategic nutritional and pest management expertise. Dani grew up on the family farm in Kondinin.

After completing high school in Perth, Dani went on to study at UWA where she undertook an honours project with the Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative researching herbicide resistance in wild radish.

Dani joined Planfarm in She currently consults to 30 farm businesses in the wheatbelt and lakes region delivering technical advice with an economical focus for crop and pasture management. She enjoys working with her clients and seeing them achieve their goals. Outside of work, Dani is often found on a hockey field, or running around the farm with her dog.

She is also an avid traveller. Nick McKenna has recently started at Planfarm's Geraldton office, and will be working closely with Richard Quinlan to develop his skills as an agronomist. Nick grew up on his family property east of Mullewa, where his parents still farm. Going home during school and uni breaks, he got his fair share of time in the paddock and on machinery. At uni, he studied a Bachelor of Science, with a major in Agriculture, which he has mostly completed.

He expects to be finished by the end of this year. Whilst in Colorado, he worked on various projects, ranging from testing the efficacy of Harvest Weed Seed control, to the development of herbicide resistance traits in sunflowers and sorghum. He also took the opportunity to spend his first November and December away from the farm in the snow, which he thoroughly enjoyed. When he can, he enjoys chocolate milk and most things on two wheels.

He is excited about working with Planfarm and delivering value to clients. Jerome specialises in advice, analysis and strategy for grain marketing. With experience in implementation of strategy, including brokerage, optimisation and load allocations. With in depth understanding of client positions, ensuring risk exposures are kept within client thresholds.

During his time there he gained a good understanding of the entire grain marketing system, from the accumulation and logistics of moving the physical grain, the hedging and management of price risk, through to the quality and end user requirements.

After his time at the AWB, Jerome embarked on a 5 year world tour, travelling and working in far flung corners of the globe. Much of the time was spent working for a tourism business in Barcelona, Spain, but he also spent time teaching English, making pizzas, working with charity organisations and even working on a Argentinian ranch as a wannabe gaucho. Jerome returned from his overseas adventures in and commenced working as grain marketing advisor, based in Geraldton, before moving to Perth in He is very proud of the fact that many of the strong client relationships he formed with farmers back at the AWB in are still alive and strong today and he looks forward to maintaining and growing these relationships for many years to come.

It would come of little surprise that Jerome's biggest passions are travelling and culture and loves nothing more than getting out of his comfort zone to challenge himself and expand his horizons. When his feet are on the ground in WA he enjoys the usual myriad of sport and socialising, in particular tennis, football heave ho , hockey and endurance events.

Nick has national crop variety grain marketing and research experience. He is an expert in individual marketing planning based on profit targets with return optimisation through depth of knowledge in seed varieties and agronomy research.

Nick grew up on the family farm in Kukerin where he spent the large majority of his time until mid-way through At the end of after five years of boarding school in Perth he spent a year working full time on the family farm. He then attended the Muresk Institute of Agriculture for the next two years, drifting home for seeding, harvest, cricket and football. Deciding to have a break from studies, Nick spent the next two years gaining industry experience working for Elders in Cunderdin, before returning to complete the final two years of study in , graduating at the end of Following graduation, Nick spent 10 months on the family farm and then travelled to Europe from a London base, having some memorable adventures before returning home for header duties in Nick joined Agrisearch as a Project Biologist based in York for two years managing various agronomic research trials.

Nick has a young family and when the opportunity presents he can usually be found surfing or playing Masters Football in winter. When not in the water or changing nappies Nick follows most sports particualrly supporting the mighty Geelong Cats in the AFL. Emily offers timely and tailored grain marketing advice.

Along with individualized strategies to manage price risk in the face of production risk and time-saving brokerage and position management experience. Grain marketing - general advice regarding cost of production, sales planning and grain marketing alternatives. Emily grew up in Zimbabwe and was associated with farming through her grandparents' farm and a number of years spent living on a tea estate.

She moved to Australia in Emily joined Planfarm as a grain marketing advisor at the start of , and was originally at our Wembley office. She is now based out the Northam Office. After finishing university, she worked at the Reserve Bank for four years looking at commodity prices and exports, as well as investment. Moving into grain marketing, she brings with her an understanding of financial markets and derivatives products.

She notes that the economics of supply, demand and price applies the world over, be it specific industries like grain markets, or whole economies. Emily's interests vary on what is available - ballet isn't as easy to come across out in the country so failing that, netball and golf with a bit of gardening and helping her husband with the sheep will typically fill her weekends up. Sophie offers timely and tailored grain marketing advice.

Bachelor of Commerce Economics , Bond University. This enabled her to fast-track her degree to complete it in two years. Whilst at Bond, Sophie enjoyed participating in a range of sports, including beach volleyball and basketball. She also completed an internship at a financial services firm, where she gained knowledge of a range of financial products. After graduation, Sophie spent six months working on the family farm, driving the chaser-bin during harvest and helping with sheep work.

Sophie joined the Planfarm Marketing team at the Floreat office in October Sophie enjoys travelling, photography and is a keen gardener. On weekends, she tries to visit the farm as much as possible, to tend to her ever-growing flock of pet sheep.

She has recently become a novice apiarist beekeeper and is likely to remain one until stung. Nic has in-depth and wide-ranging expertise in all aspects of grain marketing including brokerage, strategy, individual market planning, logistics and market analysis.

Nic actually started his career in Grain Marketing with Planfarm for the harvest in a support role during his university break. Nic enjoys the close relationships gained with dealing with farmers and helping them to achieve their goals through all aspects of Grain Marketing.

Nic has strong experience in domestic markets and logistics and is looking forward to helping Planfarm Clients in these areas. Nic is also licensed to give personal financial advice after completing his RG requirements.

Nic does whatever his wife wants to do which is currently getting himself and house prepared for the birth of his first child in November Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. At the same time, many geographies saw life expectancy stagnate or decline, particularly for men and in countries with rising mortality from war or interpersonal violence.

Globally, this mortality pattern emerged for several NCDs, including several types of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Progress was slower for several causes, such as lower respiratory infections and nutritional deficiencies, whereas deaths increased for others, including dengue and drug use disorders.

Age-standardised death rates due to injuries significantly declined from to , yet interpersonal violence and war claimed increasingly more lives in some regions, particularly in the Middle East. Globally, the effects of population growth, ageing, and changes in age-standardised death rates substantially differed by cause. Our analyses on the expected associations between cause-specific mortality and SDI show the regular shifts in cause of death composition and population age structure with rising SDI.

Country patterns of premature mortality measured as years of life lost [YLLs] and how they differ from the level expected on the basis of SDI alone revealed distinct but highly heterogeneous patterns by region and country or territory.

Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI. At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade.

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