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Journal of Health Psychology. Use only if your doctor informs you that you are an insulin dependent diabetic. Thyroid problems are among the most common medical conditions but, because symptoms often appear gradually, this disease is commonly misdiagnosed. Look for echinacea extract or a formula with alkylamides from echinacea in the ingredient list. These derivatives are hydrolyzed to release free testosterone at the site of injection; absorption rate and thus injection schedule varies among different esters, but medical injections are normally done anywhere between semi-weekly to once every 12 weeks.

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Compounds with a high ratio of androgenic to an anabolic effects are the drug of choice in androgen-replacement therapy e. This disassociation is less marked in humans, where all AAS have significant androgenic effects.

A commonly used protocol for determining the androgenic: The VP weight is an indicator of the androgenic effect, while the LA weight is an indicator of the anabolic effect. Two or more batches of rats are castrated and given no treatment and respectively some AAS of interest. Animal studies also found that fat mass was reduced, but most studies in humans failed to elucidate significant fat mass decrements. The effects on lean body mass have been shown to be dose-dependent.

Both muscle hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibers have been observed. The hydration of lean mass remains unaffected by AAS use, although small increments of blood volume cannot be ruled out. The upper region of the body thorax, neck, shoulders, and upper arm seems to be more susceptible for AAS than other body regions because of predominance of ARs in the upper body. After drug withdrawal, the effects fade away slowly, but may persist for more than 6—12 weeks after cessation of AAS use.

Overall, the exercise where the most significant improvements were observed is the bench press. The measurement of the dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects among AAS is based largely on a simple although arguably unsophisticated and outdated model involving rat tissue bioassays.

The intracellular metabolism theory explains how and why remarkable dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects can occur despite the fact that these effects are mediated through the same signaling receptor, and of course why dissociation is invariably incomplete.

An animal study found that two different kinds of androgen response elements could differentially respond to testosterone and DHT upon activation of the AR.

Changes in endogenous testosterone levels may also contribute to differences in myotrophic—androgenic ratio between testosterone and synthetic AAS. Testosterone can be metabolized by aromatase into estradiol , and many other AAS can be metabolized into their corresponding estrogenic metabolites as well.

The major effect of estrogenicity is gynecomastia woman-like breasts. AAS are androstane or estrane steroids. As well as others such as 1-dehydrogenation e. The most commonly employed human physiological specimen for detecting AAS usage is urine, although both blood and hair have been investigated for this purpose. The AAS, whether of endogenous or exogenous origin, are subject to extensive hepatic biotransformation by a variety of enzymatic pathways.

The primary urinary metabolites may be detectable for up to 30 days after the last use, depending on the specific agent, dose and route of administration. A number of the drugs have common metabolic pathways, and their excretion profiles may overlap those of the endogenous steroids, making interpretation of testing results a very significant challenge to the analytical chemist. Methods for detection of the substances or their excretion products in urine specimens usually involve gas chromatography—mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

The use of gonadal steroids pre-dates their identification and isolation. Medical use of testicle extract began in the late 19th century while its effects on strength were still being studied.

In the s, it was already known that the testes contain a more powerful androgen than androstenone , and three groups of scientists, funded by competing pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland, raced to isolate it. The chemical synthesis of testosterone was achieved in August that year, when Butenandt and G.

Wettstein, announced a patent application in a paper "On the Artificial Preparation of the Testicular Hormone Testosterone Androstenoneol. Clinical trials on humans, involving either oral doses of methyltestosterone or injections of testosterone propionate , began as early as Kennedy was administered steroids both before and during his presidency.

The development of muscle-building properties of testosterone was pursued in the s, in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where steroid programs were used to enhance the performance of Olympic and other amateur weight lifters.

In response to the success of Russian weightlifters, the U. The new steroid was approved for use in the U. It was most commonly administered to burn victims and the elderly. The drug's off-label users were mostly bodybuilders and weight lifters. Although Ziegler prescribed only small doses to athletes, he soon discovered that those having abused Dianabol suffered from enlarged prostates and atrophied testes. Three major ideas governed modifications of testosterone into a multitude of AAS: Androgens were discovered in the s and were characterized as having effects described as androgenic i.

Although anabolic steroid was originally intended to specifically describe testosterone-derived steroids with a marked dissociation of anabolic and androgenic effect, it is applied today indiscriminately to all steroids with AR agonism-based anabolic effects regardless of their androgenic potency, including even non-synthetic steroids like testosterone itself.

The legal status of AAS varies from country to country: Unlawful distribution or possession with intent to distribute AAS as a first offense is punished by up to ten years in prison. Those guilty of buying or selling AAS in Canada can be imprisoned for up to 18 months. In Canada, researchers have concluded that steroid use among student athletes is extremely widespread. A study conducted in by the Canadian Centre for Drug-Free Sport found that nearly 83, Canadians between the ages of 11 and 18 use steroids.

AAS are readily available without a prescription in some countries such as Mexico and Thailand. The history of the U. The same act also introduced more stringent controls with higher criminal penalties for offenses involving the illegal distribution of AAS and human growth hormone. By the early s, after AAS were scheduled in the U. In the Controlled Substances Act, AAS are defined to be any drug or hormonal substance chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone other than estrogens , progestins , and corticosteroids that promote muscle growth.

The act was amended by the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of , which added prohormones to the list of controlled substances , with effect from January 20, In the United Kingdom, AAS are classified as class C drugs for their illegal abuse potential, which puts them in the same class as benzodiazepines.

Part 1 drugs are subject to full import and export controls with possession being an offence without an appropriate prescription. There is no restriction on the possession when it is part of a medicinal product. Part 2 drugs require a Home Office licence for importation and export unless the substance is in the form of a medicinal product and is for self-administration by a person.

Many other countries have similar legislation prohibiting AAS in sports including Denmark, [] France, [] the Netherlands [] and Sweden. United States federal law enforcement officials have expressed concern about AAS use by police officers. It's not that we set out to target cops, but when we're in the middle of an active investigation into steroids, there have been quite a few cases that have led back to police officers," says Lawrence Payne, a spokesman for the United States Drug Enforcement Administration.

Following the murder-suicide of Chris Benoit in , the Oversight and Government Reform Committee investigated steroid usage in the wrestling industry. The documents stated that 75 wrestlers—roughly 40 percent—had tested positive for drug use since , most commonly for steroids. AAS are frequently produced in pharmaceutical laboratories, but, in nations where stricter laws are present, they are also produced in small home-made underground laboratories, usually from raw substances imported from abroad.

As with most significant smuggling operations, organized crime is involved. In the late s, the worldwide trade in illicit AAS increased significantly, and authorities announced record captures on three continents.

In , Finnish authorities announced a record seizure of A year later, the DEA seized In the first three months of , Australian customs reported a record seizures of AAS shipments.

Illegal AAS are sometimes sold at gyms and competitions, and through the mail, but may also be obtained through pharmacists, veterinarians, and physicians. AAS, alone and in combination with progestogens , have been studied as potential male hormonal contraceptives. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about androgens as medications. For androgens as natural hormones, see Androgen. Ergogenic use of anabolic steroids. Use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport.

Illegal trade in anabolic steroids. Pharmacy and Pharmacology portal. British Journal of Pharmacology. Houglum J, Harrelson GL, eds. Principles of Pharmacology for Athletic Trainers 2nd ed. Int J Sports Med. Mini Rev Med Chem. Anabolic-androgenic steroid therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases".

Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism. Pharmacology Application in Athletic Training. Clinical Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment. Royal College of Physicians.

Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete, 2d ed. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 21 June A systematic review and meta-analysis". Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports. Clinics in Liver Disease. The named reference Llewellyn was invoked but never defined see the help page. Neidle 19 March Pharmacology and Therapeutics for Dentistry - E-Book.

Do testosterone injections increase libido for elderly hypogonadal patients? Retrieved November 17, Retrieved December 5, Freter 30 July Perry's The Chemotherapy Source Book. J Womens Health Larchmt. Results from four national surveys". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Med Sci Sports Exerc. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Journal of Health Psychology. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. In Katzung, Bertram G. Applied modifications in the steroidal structure".

Medical consequences of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids: Handb Exp Pharmacol Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. J Sci Med Sport. Annals of Internal Medicine. The Journal of Adolescent Health.

The Journal of emergency medicine. Clin J Sport Med. University of California — San Francisco. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. Archived PDF from the original on 20 June Lay summary — ScienceDaily October 30, A Looming Public Health Concern?

Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. What the psychiatrist needs to know". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. Br J Sports Med. Archived from the original on And Other Performance-enhancing Drugs. Am J Public Health. Archived from the original on 10 July A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Retrieved 2 January Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Penn Clinical Manual of Urology. Protective Effects of Tea on Human Health. Therefore, it is possible that a selective androgen response element sequence may play a role in differential T vs.

Although both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone activate the same androgen receptor, differences in the sequence of androgen response elements are responsible for differential regulation of these hormones Int J Mol Sci. Bilezikian; Dirk Vanderschueren 30 November The Effects of Gender on Skeletal Health.

Kochakian 6 December Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology. There are only two reasons to perform more than 12 repetitions in a set: High repetitions will not lead to toning, or hypertrophy for that matter.

Getting big is extremely difficult, especially for women. Most men and If, after two years of lifting weights intensely, you become too large, you are either a genetic freak or on drugs.

So many lifters want to be big and so few ever achieve it because it is so difficult. Do not worry about getting too large. Lift weights to strengthen your muscles, this will improve their tone. High repetitions will only increase the amount of time, possibly indefinitely, required to achieve your goal of being toned. Lift hard, and once you are toned, then stop increasing the weights. In addition, fat hides muscle tone.

Many people can look toned just by dropping some body fat see Is weightlifting important to fat loss? Squatting is one of the most productive if not the best exercises out there it's called the King of Exercises by many. It is one of the most difficult to learn as well.

If you are new to this exercise, please take several training sessions practicing with an empty bar or broomstick you can do some additional work on the leg press if needed. It's very important to get your technique down cold while the weights are still light. Your small errors with small weights will turn into BIG errors with big weights. Much of the bad press the squat has received in the media is a result of improper technique and not the exercise itself.

Red flags you may encounter will be pointed out and hopefully how to avoid them. The first thing to discuss is not foot position or width of stance, but proper trunk position. This is the proper position of the spine for the squat. IOW, your head is pulled back; your chest is raised; and you have a slight arch in your lower back.

At no time during the squat should you bend over at the low back or look down. Of course you have to bend over at the hip more on that later. You should not look up either. OK, so you got that down? Now, the best way to do squats is in a power rack or cage a large rectangular rack with cross-drilled holes so you can adjust the pins where if you have to bale, you can set the bar down without any harm. Set the pins to just below the depth you are going. Place the J hooks or posts that hold the bar for you to get under at the level of your nipple or so.

Try to unrack it once to see if it's at the right height The bar should have a knurled area in the middle if it doesn't, find another bar or another gym so it will not slide down your back. Many people use towels or padding under the bar.

Others including me feel this leads to some instability because the weight is "teeter tottering" on a small area on your back. If the bar is hurting you either need to add some trapezius mass, place the bar a little further down your back it should be just above or below the sharp ridge on your scapula shoulder blade , buy a Manta Ray, or tolerate it because it's part of the game.

The Ray helps to spread the load across the shoulder, but it doesn't fit everyone well. Now step up to the bar. Place your hands about the same width as a bench press unless you are doing the shoulder breaker wide-grip variety and make sure you are even on the bar before unracking. Take a deep breath, step under the bar and unrack it Most squat injuries according to Fred Hatfield occur during the back up.

Only take enough steps that you can clear the j-hooks or posts on the descent. Place your feet shoulder width or slightly farther apart. Think if you suspended a line from the ceiling it would brush against your medial delt and hit you in the ankle. Use the "practice" sessions to get a width that fits you.

You might say many powerlifters squat with a wide-stance and they are pretty strong as a group. I'll agree wholeheartedly, but I'll also point out that the conventional squat is prob'ly more productive because you are working through a larger Range Of Motion.

Learn this way and then learn the variations if you like. After you have the width right, turn your feet out at roughly a 45 degree angle. Adjust the width if need be. Now you are ready to squat. Take a deep breath, contract your abs and descend. It should feel like you are sitting back on a chair behind you; not going straight down. Keep your knees in line with your feet. I have a Grade 1 knee sprain MCL from doing just this. Keep the load light enough so you won't do this and gradually build up.

Many people say to try to keep your shin at a 90 degree angle to the ground. This is impossible with the regular stance squat and is only possible by a few using the wide-stance variety.

Try to keep your knees from going out past your toes. Alter the width if need be. Most people can and should descend till their thighs are parallel to the ground. This is actually pretty low. A very small majority of people can't and may be better stopping just above parallel. Don't give up on reaching parallel too quick. Also, to go even close to parallel, you have to bend over at the hip not the spine, of course.

However, you should always be more upright than bent over. After you have descended to the bottom position, reverse your direction immediately don't bounce at the bottom and drive upwards. Try and pull your back up hip extension as hard as possible during the ascent. Brooks Kubik describes this "as if a giant gorilla had a hold of your ass and your shoulder and was trying to straighten you out.

Make each rep it's own little lift. IOW, make each one count even on your warm-ups. If you maintain good form in your warm-ups, you'll likely retain it for the work sets. Should you wear a belt or knee wraps? The former helps to stabilize the spine by increasing intra-abdominal pressure and the latter is just a way of elevating more weight. Especially if you are getting started with the squat, go without either. Use your abdomen as the brace instead of outside help. The knee wraps serve no use except to the powerlifter who wants a bigger max.

They may impede the growth of structures around the knee or even cause some harm if used chronically. The main reason the power rack gathers dust while there is a line for the angled leg press is because squats HURT! They both feel some pain when doing this exercise. Learn to live with it! The most productive exercises are the most painful. It's a fact of life. Learn to be aggressive and focus your complete attention on the task at hand. Good luck and happy training! Chuck Clark SPT cmclarz1 homer.

Squat" Hatfield's three-part squat primer at http: One of the most productive, but least seen exercises in the gym is the deadlift. From a technique point of view, it's a relatively simple one compared to the squat. You just stand up holding a barbell in front of you without humping your back. That's a brief, but concise explanation. However, most people are scared of the deadlift because they think it will pull, strain, or break their back.

When performed in good form, however, the deadlift is one of the best erector the muscles of the spine and total body exercises around. First, learn to set up your spine and shoulder girdle as described in the "How to Squat" section. Suffice to say, you should pull your shoulders back and keep them there. Load a barbell on the floor to the desired poundage. Make sure the area around you is free of potential troubles and the floor is not slippery. If you don't have the required strength to use 45 lb.

Walk up and place your feet slightly narrower than shoulder width apart with your shin almost brushing the bar. Point your toes out at an angle slightly. Reach down and grasp the bar with an overhand grip just outside your legs. Contract your abs hard, make sure your back is flat actually with a natural arch , and pull the bar up. Be sure to keep the bar as close to your body as possible as you stand up.

The angle to which your hip and knee joints go to is an individual matter. Length of bones and your flexibility will determine this. You should always attempt to remain more upright than bent over.

When you pull the bar, make sure your hip joint straightens at the same rate as your knee. Don't straighten your knees and then try to straighten your hips.

Also, don't lean back at the top. After you've stood up with the weight, take a breath, contract your abs and slowly descend in the reverse manner you came up. Do NOT bounce the barbell on the floor. After the plates touch the floor, take a breath or many! Make each rep its own little lift. Practice the mvmt with light weight till you get it down before moving up in weight. The first muscles to usually fatigue during the lift are those associated with gripping the bar which are mostly located in the forearm.

Most people will tell you to use an mixed grip one palm forward, one palm back. This can create some torque imbalances that may give you problems later. Especially when you are starting out, keep to the pronated or hands-over grip and let your grip muscles catch up. If you must use the mixed grip, alternate which palm is forward each set or each session. The least attractive option is to use straps. Straps take the work off of the grip muscles and arguably make the deadlift less productive.

Use chalk if it is feasible to help hold the bar. As in the squat, some people can't truly descend to the bottom position in the deadlift safely. Don't give up very quickly on making this low spot. If you can't, don't despair. Place some pins in the power rack to where when you place the barbell on them it's just above where it would be on the floor. Try out the mvmt. Elevate the pins till it feels right.

If this doesn't help or having to pull the bar that's out in front of you gives your back fits, you might want to give a Gerard trap bar a try. This is a diamond shaped bar that you stand inside of and deadlift.

The line of force is through you instead of out front. This makes for a more safe and therefore productive exercise than the regular version. You can have a look at the Gerard trap bar at. As in the squat, the deadlift is a very productive and, hence brutal exercise.

Don't be scared of it, though. Tall and lanky people who usually have great trouble squatting or benching can usually move up quickly in poundages in the deadlift. This exercise is more than just a back exercise or a "thickening" exercise, it's a total body exercise.

Too much in weight training is put into isolation. The big movements ARE the most productive. The deadlift works you from finger to neck to toe. Treat it with respect and it will help you realize your goals quicker than without it. Unless the dumbbells are extremely heavy, start by standing with them resting against the front of your thighs, sit on the bench, then lie down and "kick" them up into position onto your chest.

After the last rep, lower them close to your waist and reverse the process. Use weight for resistance. Crunches are good because they focus on the abs. I view crunches as an isolation movement. Compound movements are usually better, so I actually recommend sit ups especially incline with weight held on the chest.

Yes, sit ups work the hip flexors and other muscles as well, but these muscles are critical to movements like the squat, deadlift and other serious compound movements. Who wants weak hip flexors anyway? For those who are obsessed with their abdominal muscles, are willing to spare no expense to develop them, and want a hard-core, high-intensity, low-repetition abdominal workout, there IS an answer.

The primary problem with this method is the fact that the required equipment is [a] rather expensive, and [b] since the late s, rather difficult to find. You will need an "inversion table" with "gravity boots.

An "inversion table" is designed for use with gravity boots. It is like a vertical army cot with two bars spanning the foot end, one below the feet, and one above the feet. It is attached to a stand by a single pivot hinge on each side. After fitting the gravity boots, you step onto the inversion table with your feet on the lowest bar and the hooks of the boots locked beneath the upper bar. Then, you simply throw your weight backwards, causing the table to pivot approximately degrees on its hinges, leaving you suspended by your ankles, completely upside-down.

Please note that a good inversion table will pivot beyond perpendicular, breaking contact with all parts of your body other than your ankles; some of them will not reach full perpendicular, leaving you mostly inverted but still laying on the surface of the table. The latter is not well suited to this type of exercise. Once inverted, you can perform a normal "crunch" routine. The complete inversion of your body will provide extreme resistance which will result in the much-desired abdominal "burn" long before the number of repetitions required when doing crunches on the floor or on a slant board.

However, a few suggestions on technique will be helpful:. Your neck should be held in a relaxed position, with your head back, "pulling" yourself forward with your shoulders, not your head. When you find yourself able to do more than 20 repetitions, you may clasp a weight plate to your chest to add resistance, increasing the size of the plate each time you can exceed 20 repetitions.

However, even with your legs fully extended, you will find that the usual back stress experienced during traditional crunches is almost non-existent when performing "inverted" crunches. Aside from the increased resistance in using this abdominal workout, there are a few other advantages:.

Your back does not contact any solid surface; therefore, no friction. That is why you can easily hold your head back during this routine without worrying about striking it on the floor and without the need to support it in any way. Abdominal Training FAQ http: Everyone has a six-pack of abs. The ability to see them is completely dependent upon body fat levels.

If you want to show off a washboard stomach, then drop the body fat. Spot reduction is a myth. Hundreds of situps or crunches will not "bring out" the abs if they're covered in fat. If you want to increase the strength of your abdominals and every lifter should , then perform abdominal exercises with WEIGHT. What is the proper way to do shrugs? Shrugs should be performed in a straight up and down motion. Keep the head in an upright position, looking straight ahead, not at the floor, not at the ceiling.

Rolling the shoulders does not stress the traps any better. In fact, it may be harmful. Rowing movements can effectively work the traps when the shoulders are pulled backward. However, rowing movements call for moving the weight perpendicular to the body in order to stress these muscles during this movement. During shrugs the weight is not in a position to provide resistance against a backward movement. Therefore, a shrug should be done straight up and down.

In a word, NO! Everyone from Peewee Herman to Ahnuld has their own individual genetic shape. You can't change it. This extends to the shape of the muscle bellies as well. Some people have very long and flat muscle bellies and some have peaky, short muscles. Most people are somewhere in between. The biceps brachii is a two headed muscle that runs from the shoulder to across the elbow. It functions to supinate and flex the forearm.

The 2 heads run parallel to each other and it's debatable whether one exercise will target one over the other when sufficient weight is used.

You can't preferentially contract one area of a bicep head over the other, either. The innervation of a muscle or muscle head in this case is made so that if one motor unit motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates fires you'll get a very weak contraction all over the whole muscle.

As more motor units are called into play the weak contractions all over, of course summate and you get a strong contraction. Also, you can't stretch one part of a muscle over any other part because you either move the muscle attachments closer together or farther apart.

So, what do you do? You just merely focus on making your arms larger: This will give you the illusion of having peakier or longer biceps. Doing the "mass" or big movements will go longer to giving you big arms than endless sets of curls. Also, you're going to have to increase your bodyweight significantly to make any real gains in bicep mass.

It's much easier to put an inch on your arms when you've put on 20 lbs of muscle. Muscle is what moves us and it's something we all lose as we age. The exact mechanism causing this change is unknown, but it is thought that it is related to altered interactions between muscle cells and motor nerves. Muscle loss leads to a lower metabolic rate and, thus, weight gain unless Calorie intake is reduced which rarely happens.

Age associated muscle wasting can lead to a number of problems where older people may not have the strength to lift loads, rise from a chair, or carry out the daily activities required for independent living. Weight lifting or resistance training can actually prevent this muscle loss. So far, strength training is the only method shown effective at slowing this loss of muscle.

Aerobic exercise does not stem muscle loss. Physiologists indicate that, ideally, a person would begin weight training before age 50 those of us at mfw would suggest by age The benefits are not restricted to older members of society.

If you have high blood pressure, diabetes, heart pains or any heart or circulatory condition, it is essential to check with your physician before beginning. Strength training has been shown to increase bone-density in post-menopausal women, helping to prevent bone fractures. In addition, weightlifting can improve neural control of muscles which can prevent the types of accidents that often cause bone fractures in the elderly. In addition, weightlifting can contribute greatly to the control of body fat.

Therefore, weightlifting can be very beneficial for those who have a tendency towards obesity. As more studies are done, more and more beneficial effects of weightlifting are becoming evident. These benefits have been seen regardless of the ages, sexes, and prior levels of training:.

On the occasion of a recent Junior World Championship we measured, by single photon absorptiometry, BMC Bone Mineral Content in 59 young competitive male athletes aged 15 to 20 years from 14 countries. It seems that the vigorous exercise of weightlifters tends to fade out any race or age-related BMC differences.

Both aerobic and resistance training exercise can provide weight-bearing stimulus to bone, yet research indicates that resistance training may have a more profound site specific effect than aerobic exercise. Over the past 10 years, nearly two dozen cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown a direct and positive relationship between the effects of resistance training and bone density.

See also the note on protein consumption and calcium at Is increased protein intake harmful? While the aminotransferases are often referred to as liver enzymes, these enzymes are actually found in numerous tissues and their numbers often increase from exercise-induced trauma.

These numbers are a good marker for people who drink alcohol constantly, or consume oral anabolic steroids. If the numbers are times higher than the normal range in the aforementioned people, there's a good chance their livers are hurting.

First, cardiovascular conditioning is very important for health, but bodybuilders rely on it to help shed fat so they can show off the physiques they have built. Some argue that they burn enough calories from intense weight workouts, making cardio unnecessary. While this may be true for people with fast metabolisms, it is not true for a large percentage of the population. Recent studies have found that long duration, repetitive use of muscles like biking, rowing, skiing or jogging for 10 minutes or longer causes changes in gene expression that greatly increase the quantity of certain proteins within these exercised cells mainly slow twitch fibers.

These proteins not only have the potential to lead to better health, but they can greatly enhance the fat burning done by these muscle cells. To turn your body into a blast furnace, do some cardio exercise regularly. In addition, regular cardio work may also provide for better blood flow to muscle cells, which may provide for better lifting in the gym. Powerlifters who are unconcerned with the health benefits of cardiovascular exercise may still need to do some regular cardiovascular exercise.

Too much cardio work would be absolutely detrimental to their goal. However, insufficient cardio exercise may limit their potential as a powerlifter.

Cardiovascular exercise before lifting weights can serve as a very good warmup. Unfortunately, this may leave you too fatigued to give intense effort to the weight workout. Weightlifting before cardiovascular exercise may help the body go into "fat burning" mode faster because the weightlifting depletes glycogen stores. Unfortunately, after lifting a person may be too tired to have an effective cardiovascular workout. The general consensus is that, for general fitness, it doesn't matter what order you do your exercise.

However, strength athletes should prioritize the weightlifting first, performing the cardio later. This is very difficult. It can be done in some unique circumstances, but for the most part it isn't possible. For example, novice lifters can sometimes gain muscle and lose fat at the same time.

Also, people returning from long layoffs can sometimes add muscle and lose fat at the same time. However, experienced lifters who are working out consistently can't do both at the same time.

If you want to do both, you should choose one goal either fat loss or muscle gain and work towards that goal for a few months. After some success towards that goal, you should then change over and try to accomplish the other for a few months.

Be single-minded in your focus towards that goal. When trying to lose fat, you should be unconcerned if you lose a little muscle as well. Likewise, if you're trying to add muscle, you should allow the addition of a small amount of fat. No, this can't be done. Most dieters will lose 1 pound of muscle for every 3 pounds of fat lost.

Steroid-aided athletes can only take this ratio up to about 1: Muscle loss when dieting is inevitable. Try to minimize it, but focus on the goal of fat loss.

Yes, it is possible. Gaining strength without gaining muscle mass is common in novice lifters and people who are returning from long lay-offs. Older lifters can sometimes improve strength through improvements in lifting technique. However, once these avenues have been exhausted, the only way to improve strength is through and increase in mass. This is why so many bodybuilders, appropriately, train to get stronger. If you get stronger, you will get larger. This doesn't automatically mean, that when comparing to different individuals, the larger person is stronger.

It simply means that if you take your existing muscle mass and then increase it, it will necessarily be stronger. In response to this question, Fred Hatfield once said "just lift the damn weights!

There are some good nutrition and training FAQs located at http: There are three macronutrients food consumed in large amounts to meet energy and other physiological requirements that you must consume daily: Bodybuilders often focus on protein which is the largest constituent of muscle cells after water because, after all, "you are what you eat.

Those attempting to add muscle to their frames should consume at least 15 to 20 times their body weight in pounds - kg x 2. Bodybuilders are rarely deficient in protein. Common sources of protein include milk, eggs, red meat, chicken, beans, rice, pasta and nuts. The healthiest diets usually involve a wide variety of carbohydrate sources starting with vegetables and fruits. Other sources of carbs include rice, pasta, baked potatoes, oats and breads. These are common carbohydrates consumed on weight-gain diets.

Someone trying to lose body fat should consume between 10 and 15 times their body weight in Calories per day. A common goal is to consume about Calories fewer than you would normally require, and exercise to burn off an extra Calories.

At this Calorie deficit of Calories per day, a person will lose about 1 pound of fat per week. A person should never lose more than 2 pounds per week. The faster the weight is lost, the more likely muscle will be lost instead of fat.

Other health problems are also associated with drastic weight loss. When it comes to dividing the calories between protein, carbohydrates, and fats, don't start by figuring out the precise percentages unless you're following the Zone Diet , start with your body's nutritional requirements:.

Your body doesn't know from percentages of anything. So protein gets set at that level regardless. Then worry about the other numbers. But just keep in mind that the percentages can be terribly misleading.

The daily protein intake necessary to prevent lean tissue losses and ideally allow for muscle mass and strength gain is estimated to be about 0. Optimal protein intake for maximum growth in non-dieting individuals is likely even higher. The protein requirements of dieters are certainly not less, owing to their increased tendency to burn both dietary and tissue protein for fuel.

Weight loss and carbohydrates Carbohydrates are starches and sugars such as those found in bread, pasta, rice, vegetables, fruits, non-diet soda pop, Twinkies, crackers, and breakfast cereals.

The traditional division between "simple" and "complex" carbohydrates is largely meaningless and often misleading when compared to the body's own responses to different kinds of foods. The Glycemic Index of foods is a far more useful measure of their real-world effects. Glycemic Index GI is a rating system for carbohydrates based on how quickly the sugar enters the blood stream and the degree of insulin response induced. GIs were initially established to help diabetics regulate insulin levels following meals.

Carbohydrate sources with low GIs generally enter the blood stream slower or cause a smaller insulin response. This can be beneficial for those trying to lose fat as well as those who are diabetic. Note that the Glycemic Index is measured for a standardized gram sample of a carbohydrate-rich food eaten in isolation and on an empty stomach.

Rick Mendosa maintains an extensive list of the glycemic indices of foods at http: Unfortunately, though the names have been changed, the foods that you'd always thought were bad for your diet still are. Foods rich in sugars are particularly to be avoided, with non-diet sodas and fruit juices sharing a particular talent for sneaking loads of calories past the lips of the unwary dieter.

It is likely beneficial to consume multiple meals per day, like six, instead of just three. One reason is that multiple meals will reduce the amount of carbohydrate eaten at any one time, causing a smaller insulin response at each meal and maintaining a more constant insulin level throughout the day.

Much evidence indicates that high insulin levels encourages the storage of fat. The primary source of fat should be vegetable sources while minimizing the intake of saturated fats from animal sources. There are essential fatty acids. Linoleic acid is obtained from just about every source of vegetable fat. Linolenic acid, and other omega-3 fatty acids, are more difficult to obtain, but they are found in walnuts, flax seed, borage seed and some fish oils.

As outlined above, a loss of muscle mass causes a decrease in metabolic rate and subsequent weight fat gain. Inevitably, dieters undergoing Calorie restriction will lose some of their muscle mass. This loss of muscle will slow down the metabolic rate causing them to resort to further Calorie decreases or increases in physical activity in order to continue losing weight.

Weightlifting can actually prevent some of this muscle loss, and if new muscle is added to your frame, you will actually burn more Calories when you aren't even exercising the other 23 hours in the day.

Successful weight loss requires permanent dietary and exercise changes, but the goal of fat loss is more likely to be successful when weightlifting is combined with proper diet and aerobic cardiovascular exercise.

Weight loss centers are usually viewed as a temporary fix and they rarely contribute to long-term management of body fat. People will usually visit the center for a while where their meals are controlled and they are regularly weighed and measured for body fat.

However, once the person stops visiting the center, their eating patterns do not resemble the meals of the controlled environments and people often lose motivation without the regular weigh-ins to monitor their progress. Successful elimination of body fat comes about through long-term changes in diet decrease Calorie intake, eat healthier foods and a long-term commitment to exercise.

Some people find other types of diets useful. On this diet, Dan also encourages the consumption of low to moderate GI carbs. The AD is a cyclical ketogenic diet which provides a way to gain muscle whilst losing fat, sometimes at an astonishing rate. During the week no carbs are ingested less than 30g per day , fat and protein make up the daily calories. On the weekends the diet switches over to a normal low fat and very high carb regime. The diet works in the following manner.

In the absence of carbs during the week , the body switches to ketone bodies from fat breakdown for an energy source - this is ketosis. Ketones have been shown to be protein sparing. The high levels of ingested fats also trick the body into a faster metabolic rate.

On the weekends when huge amounts of insulin spiking carbs are ingested, the body is put into a highly anabolic state. Fat spillover is minimised due to the carb depleted muscles absorbing most of the excess blood sugar.

Hence, fat loss is maximised during the week with minimal muscle loss and conversely on weekends muscle gain is maximised and any fat spillover is minimised. Weekday food choices include bacon and eggs, steak, salmon, full fat mayo, cream, butter, sausages - you get the picture.

See the following site by Jeff Krabbe for more info. Bodyopus is very similar to the anabolic diet except that it focuses on losing bodyfat quickly while minimizing lean tissue losses and includes the use of various pharmacological agents.

Mysteriously, Bodyopus was published without an index, but Robert Ames was kind enough to write one. A plain-text version is available at http: The zone diet, by Barry Sears, is an extremely Calorie restrictive diet that involves maintaining a protein to carbohydrate ratio of 0.

In theory, this type of diet should reduce the insulin response after meals containing high-glycemic foods. Subsequently, Sears believes that this lower insulin response should help reduce body fat. A recent study found that after long-term 30 day consumption of low-glycemic foods, the body can alter insulin secretion to reflect values similar to those observed following the consumption of high glycemic foods. In addition, another study found that, despite decreased insulin secretion, there was no significant fat loss above that observed in a high insulin secretion group.

There are problems with both of these studies, but they do raise serious questions that have yet to be answered with respect to the zone diet. First, almost all studies examining the glycemic index of food have followed the subjects for only a number of hours after the meal, or for only a few days. Insulin responses have not been examined after long-duration consumption of low glycemic index foods.

This leaves the question, will the body adapt, in the long run, to low glycemic diets by secreting some predetermined genetic quantity of insulin? Second, while insulin certainly encourages the storage of fat, one obvious question remains. Can reducing insulin levels by changing to a low glycemic index diet actually result in fat loss, independent of further Calorie restriction?

In addition, weightlifters usually have some of the best glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity around, raising another question.

Will this type of diet be beneficial for weightlifting, or any, athletes? Due to the extremely Calorie restrictive nature of this diet, I RR do not recommend it for weightlifters trying to gain lean mass. Those trying to lose fat may find the recommendations of the zone diet to be very beneficial for fat loss. The basics of the diet revolve around low-glycemic vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans and dairy products as food sources containing the ideal carbohydrates.

While all the claims have not yet been born out by research, the Zone diet is a sound approach to nutrition. Most people who have tried it report good results at losing fat while preserving lean mass. People trying to gain lean muscle have had more mixed results. Further information can be obtained by going to http: For weightlifters, 3 effects on the Zone diet are generally reported.

See also The Zone page http: Common wisdom is that the dietary protein requirements of athletes exceed that of sedentary individuals, but this topic remains a contentious one with a very wide range of recommendations and a few outspoken individuals even going so far as to deny that athletes have any greater requirement at all or that increased protein consumption is harmful see the following section, Is increased protein intake harmful?

One of the best-known researchers on the subject is Peter Lemon, who writes:. Recent evidence indicates that actual requirements are higher than those of more sedentary individuals, although this is not widely recognized.

Novices may have higher needs than experienced strength athletes, and substantial interindividual variability exists. Although routinely consumed by many strength athletes, higher protein intakes have not been shown to be consistently effective and may even be associated with some health risks.

In a word, no. Several studies have indeed shown that reduced protein intake is beneficial for individuals suffering from kidney disorders, but this does not imply that a diet high in protein is harmful for individuals with healthy, functioning kidneys.

Increased protein intake does, however, also increase calcium excretion; this is not generally a problem, because it can be compensated for by increased calcium intake, either from food or from supplements. Many high-protein foods, including milk and cheese, contain more than enough calcium to compensate for any increase in calcium excretion due to their protein content.

Even if your diet is high in protein but not high in calcium-rich foods, calcium supplements are widely and cheaply available in pill form. Carbohydrate loading is the technique of depleting muscle glycogen stores, usually through a combination of diet and exercise, followed by a period of consuming a diet rich in high glycemic index carbohydrates. Muscle cells with depleted glycogen stores will take up and store carbohydrates from the bloodstream much more rapidly than undepleted cells and if glycogen stores are refilled rapidly, this "window" of increased uptake will last slightly longer than it takes to return glycogen stores to baseline levels, leading to more glycogen being stored in muscle tissue than would ordinarily.

Several carbohydrate CHO -loading protocols have been used to achieve muscle glycogen supercompensation and prolong endurance performance. This study assessed the persistence of muscle glycogen supercompensation over the 3 days after the supercompensation protocol. Trained male athletes completed a 6-day CHO-loading protocol that included cycle ergometer exercise and dietary manipulations.

Subjects cycled 40 min at the same intensity for the next 2 days. The CHO-loading protocol increased muscle glycogen by 1. Results indicate that supercompensated muscle glycogen levels can be maintained for at least 3 days in a resting athlete when a moderate-CHO diet is consumed. Carbohydrate loading is potentially valuable to both the bodybuilder and endurance athlete, by increasing muscle size and fullness and by increasing intramuscular energy stores to be used in a subsequent athletic event.

Because glycogen storage requires the simultaneous uptake of water by muscle cells, carbohydrate loading also has the potential for drawing in any excess extracellular water, which makes the skin appear thinner and brings out muscular detail. Care must be taken to drink sufficient fluids at any time when glycogen stores are being replenished, because if too much water is taken up without adequate intake, electrolyte imbalances and cramping may result. Unfortunately, even if there are natural ways to increase testosterone, the body tends to adapt to that change.

It is unlikely that natural supplements can actually result in observable benefits. Homeopathic testosterone and other homeopathic preparations You may be wondering how one can legally sell testosterone and how homeopathic "testosterone" might be effective when taken orally, like testosterone isn't.

The secret lies in the basic principle of homeopathy, which claims that the "essence" of a substance remains even when it is diluted to the point that none of the substance in question actually remains in the solution. As such, these are basically just particularly expensive vials of distilled water and will do everything for you that drinking a tiny vial of water would, thus getting around the legal and biochemical limitations of actual testosterone.

I suspect it's much simpler. If you do exercises, with really heavy weights, that stress the entire body, then the entire body grows to adapt to that stress. I'm going to back this statement. This is the main reason any power lifter does overloads.

My PR in the squat is , so I put on the bar and simply hold it. In laymen's term's it's simply getting used to the weight. That is my advice for powerlifters. For any other athlete, this advice may be different.

Train for what you do! Not for what increases limit strength. Neither masturbation or sexual intercourse is likely to worsen your athletic performance and recovery or lower testosterone levels. If you do have sex in the gym, be aware that other gym members may complain if you haven't brought enough to share with them too. J Endocrinol Sep;70 3: Purvis K, Landgren BM, Cekan Z, Diczfalusy E The levels of pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone DHA , androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone DHT , oestrone, oestradiol, cortisol and luteinizing hormone LH were measured in the peripheral plasma of a group of young, apparently healthy males before and after masturbation.

The same steroids were also determined in a control study, in which the psychological antipation of masturbation was encouraged, but the physical act was not carried out.

The plasma levels of all steroids were significantly increased after masturbation, whereas steroid levels remained unchanged in the control study. The most marked changes after masturbation were observed in pregnenolone and DHA levels. No alterations were observed in the plasma levels of LH. Both before and after masturbation plasma levels of testosterone were significantly correlated to those of DHT and oestradiol, but not to those of the other steroids studied.

On the other hand, cortisol levels were significantly correlated to those of pregnenolone, DHA, androstenedione and oestrone. In the same subjects, the levels of pregnenolone, DHA, androstenedione, testosterone and DHT in seminal plasma were also estimated; they were all significantly correlated to the levels of the corresponding steroid in the systemic blood withdrawn both before and after masturbation.

Psychosom Med May-Jun;61 3: The present study investigated the cardiovascular, genital, and endocrine changes in women after masturbation-induced orgasm.

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