NLiS Country Profile: Afghanistan

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Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
Add in your own exercise and this is a great alternative to spending 75 bucks or so on the 21 Day Fix. J Am Coll Health. In , François Magendie discovered that dogs fed only carbohydrates sugar , fat olive oil , and water died evidently of starvation, but dogs also fed protein survived, identifying protein as an essential dietary component. Hypertension, which is predictive of progression of micro- as well as macrovascular complications of diabetes, can be prevented and managed with interventions including weight loss, physical activity, moderation of alcohol intake, and diets such as DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. Rossi states that these gaps are often a result of unreliable tools or methods to measure nutrition risk, along with a lack of clarity in the definition of risk. For years, I've always heard that there's a connection between what we eat and what goes on inside our bodies.

A position statement of the American Diabetes Association

Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes

Report prepared for the participating governments by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

The Food and Agriculture Organization is greatly indebted to all those who assisted in the implementation of the project by providing information, advice and facilities.

Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided.

The sole purpose of links to non-FAO sites is to indicate further information available on related topics. This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition OCR software. FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.

Despite recent global advancements in aquaculture, the absence of appropriate technological management has caused problems of fish disease which have greatly limited economic return on investments and have posed serious obstacles to long-term sustainable development in aquaculture. The situation is especially serious in developing countries, where extensive production systems are in place and where aquaculture investments face increasing risks. Associated with this is the common concern of developed countries, usually importers of aquaculture products from developing countries, as to the unqualified use of chemicals and drugs in disease treatment in production, and in disease prevention in quarantine and food inspection systems.

Although much scientific progress has recently been made in the field of fish pathology, knowledge of fish disease and fish health management techniques differ not only among various countries but also among fish disease study institutions within any particular country. The recent understanding of interrelationships between fish disease and such issues as fish nutrition, genetics and environment provides much useful application to the management of fish disease problems in aquaculture.

Because of its role in worldwide aquaculture and fisheries development, FAO is well suited to execute an international programme for the dissemination of methodologies on fish disease diagnosis, prevention and treatment to interested countries.

Recognizing the urgency of containing increasing fish disease problems, the FAO International Conference of World Aquaculture, held in in Kyoto, Japan, recommended that the strengthening of international cooperative efforts for the resolution of such problems be made a high priority in aquaculture development.

The project was conceived as a result of requests made by governments to hold national and international training courses on fish disease diagnosis. An international network of information on fish disease, closely related to the activities of the International Office of Epizootics OIE on epizootic diseases and to the Codex Alimentarius Commission's monitoring of drug and chemical use in aquaculture for disease prevention, was also recommended for incorporation in the project.

FAO assistance was thus requested in two primary areas: The Project Document was signed on 1 April and the project became operational in June , with project implementation carried out directly from FAO Headquarters.

Counterpart contributions were separately arranged by means of a Letter of Agreement between FAO and the host institute of the concerned government for each project activity. The development objective of the project was to provide developing countries with an improved capacity to diagnose and treat fish disease in aquaculture.

The immediate objective of the project was to improve the capacity of developing countries to develop aquaculture through improved mechanisms for the diagnosis and control of diseases of culture organisms. Project implementation focused primarily on three activities: Detailed arrangements for the first two activities were made directly with each host institute representing its government.

The FAO Representation office in the country, if present, assisted in coordination between the government and its host institute. During the project period, fish disease diagnosis services were established in nine fish disease institutes, and 11 fish disease diagnosis training courses and workshops were held, of which five were international two in the Czech Republic and one each in Poland, Chile and Viet Nam and six were national two each in China, Viet Nam and Thailand.

Limited budgetary provisions restricted the selection of host countries, made according to the following criteria. For Central Europe and South America, selected host countries had significant aquaculture activities as well as fish disease research facilities and capabilities which could be upgraded to become fully functional in fish disease diagnosis. The provision of basic items of equipment for fish disease diagnosis was an important project activity. Based on firsthand knowledge of requirements, the items provided to the host institutes see Appendix 3 were intended to adequately equip them for fish disease diagnosis activities by the end of the project.

Training course and workshop activities included demonstrations of the application and maintenance of the provided equipment. Six national training courses and five international workshops on fish disease diagnosis were conducted in collaboration with 11 host institutes in China, Viet Nam, Thailand, the Czech Republic, Poland and Chile see Appendix 2.

The training programme covered general fish and shellfish pathology and diagnosis technology, with emphasis on the standardization and dissemination of diagnostic techniques and on-farm diagnosis of fish and shrimp diseases. The recommended techniques took into consideration the limited equipment facilities available in developing countries. A total of technicians from six countries were trained in the six national training courses, and another 92 technicians from 25 countries attended the five international workshops.

Lecturers comprised 66 national scientists from six countries and 20 international fish disease professionals from 25 countries. A total of fish disease workers, excluding observers, attended these 11 training sessions.

Technical support services in the fields of bacteriology, virology, mycology parasitology and histopathology are required for the diagnosis of fish diseases. The Food Exchange System guides you to use variety and flexibility in your meal planning to achieve balanced nutrition at a calorie level that is best for your goals.

Food exchange lists, which were developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Diabetes Association, group all foods with similar proportions of carbohydrates, protein, and fat. Based on similar proportions of these three nutrients, all food is divided into six groups: For example, half of an English muffin may be exchanged for a 1-ounce slice of bread since both of these foods are in the Starch group and have roughly the same amount of carbohydrate, protein, and fat.

The Hands-on Pounds-off Guide, fully explains the Exchange System, so members understand it and use it successfully as they plan their meals. While the Exchange System can seem a bit tricky at first, once you learn it, it's a tool for life. Size of the plate and size of the portions are, of course, very important. The MyPlate icon gives us a visual reminder to fill half of our plate with fruits and vegetables, something TOPS has advocated for years.

The remainder of our plate should include lean protein and grains—preferably whole grains such as brown rice or whole-wheat pasta. Pair your plate with a side of low-fat dairy such as skim milk, and you have a balanced, nutritious meal. To learn more about MyPlate, visit www. Try to use MyPlate as the basis for your main meal each day as a simple way to get started.

Similar to the U.

The Food Exchange System