Gallstones

What Are Gallstones?

Understanding Gallstones -- Diagnosis and Treatment
At some point, if the dog is not eating, going downhill, and suffering, the decision must be made for humane euthanasia rather than letting the dog die a painful death. This operation is considered among the safest of all surgical procedures. I will never be able to work to the limits of all the weight possibilities, but I'm hoping my husband and son will use it, too. Piersma and Drent Fill your bag with icing and trace the organ onto the plastic wrap!

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Gallstones: What You Should Know

Two other orders of decapodiform cephalopods are also called squid, although they are taxonomically distinct from squids and differ recognizably in their gross anatomical features. They are the bobtail squid of order Sepiolida and the ram's horn squid of the monotypic order Spirulida.

The vampire squid , however, is more closely related to the octopuses than to any squid. Squid have differentiated from their ancestral molluscs such that the body plan has been condensed antero-posteriorly and extended dorso-ventrally. What before may have been the foot of the ancestor is modified into a complex set of tentacles and highly developed sense organs, including advanced eyes similar to those of vertebrates. The ancestral shell has been lost, with only an internal gladius , or pen, remaining.

The pen is a feather-shaped internal structure that supports the squid's mantle and serves as a site for muscle attachment. It is made of a chitin -like material. The main body mass is enclosed in the mantle , which has a swimming fin along each side. These fins, unlike in other marine organisms, are not the main source of locomotion in most species. The skin is covered in chromatophores , which enable the squid to change color to suit its surroundings, making it practically invisible.

The underside is also almost always lighter than the topside , to provide camouflage from both prey and predator. Under the body are openings to the mantle cavity, which contains the gills ctenidia and openings to the excretory and reproductive systems. At the front of the mantle cavity lies the siphon , which the squid uses for locomotion via precise jet propulsion. The direction of the siphon can be changed, to suit the direction of travel. Inside the mantle cavity, beyond the siphon, lies the visceral mass, which is covered by a thin, membranous epidermis.

Under this are all the major internal organs. Squid are strong swimmers and certain species can "fly" for short distances out of the water.

As cephalopods, squid exhibit relatively high intelligence among invertebrates. For example, groups of Humboldt squid hunt cooperatively, using active communication. In females, the ink sac is hidden from view by a pair of white nidamental glands , which lie anterior to the gills.

Also, red-spotted accessory nidamental glands are present. Both organs are associated with nutrient manufacture and shells for the eggs. Females also have a large translucent ovary , situated towards the posterior of the visceral mass.

Males do not possess these organs, but instead have a large testis in place of the ovary, and a spermatophoric gland and sac. In mature males, this sac may contain spermatophores , which are placed inside the female's mantle during mating.

Like all cephalopods, squid have complex digestive systems. The muscular stomach is found roughly in the midpoint of the visceral mass. From there, the bolus moves into the caecum for digestion. The caecum, a long, white organ, is found next to the ovary or testis. In mature squid, more priority is given to reproduction such that the stomach and caecum often shrivel up during the later life stages. Finally, food goes to the liver or digestive gland , found at the siphon end, for absorption.

Solid waste is passed out of the rectum. Beside the rectum is the ink sac, which allows a squid to rapidly discharge black ink into the mantle cavity. Squid have three hearts. Try it on different areas of the mouth!

Are our senses really so strictly divided? Try putting your toothpick of lemon juice where sweet should be, or your sugar where salty should be! Moving along through the digestive process, our mouth does a lot more than just taste your food! When you take a bite of something like a crunchy apple your mouth produces saliva , a liquid containing enzymes that softens and dissolves your food.

Your teeth mash together, chomping and breaking things down smaller pieces. Your tongue pushes the pieces of food together into a lump of chewed food called a bolus. When you swallow the bolus, your esophagus muscles swing into action to start pushing your food down toward your stomach. Once your food is pushed into your stomach, the real digestive action begins!

While it is called the small intestine because of its diameter just about 1 inch , this organ is actually quite large, ranging from 10 ft to 22 ft in length!

It is here where the vast majority of the nutrients are absorbed from your food! Once your food has traveled through your small intestine, it makes its way through the large intestine! The large intestine is only 5 feet in length, but has a diameter of about 2.

Your large intestine will also absorb most of the water from the slop, leaving behind a semi-solid mass of waste material. From here, it will be stored in the rectum until it can be eliminated from your body as fecal waste poop! Set this aside for later use. Take your peanut butter sandwich and break it up into tiny pieces. Put the pieces into the sandwich bag and add your water.

This will act as the saliva, further breaking down your food. Add the acid into your bag, simulating the hydrochloric stomach acids that work to break down your food. Continue mashing your food, pretending that your hands are acting as stomach muscles! Take your nylon tube and hold it over your shallow pan. Pour your chyme into the nylon. Start squeezing the chyme through the nylon. This would be the nutrient rich material that is absorbed through the small intestine! If you want to get really detailed, you can roll it into a nice shape, and examine your handiwork.

You should have a nice round pile of…. Now, there is a much more palatable way of appreciating our digestive system. One of our favorite projects of all time, was when I surprised my daughter and niece with making our very own digestive system anatomy cake!

It was really easy, and really fun! Cake Mix and the supplies for baking! Take your kids to the dollar store and pick out a bunch of candy! Have them make a list before you go, detailing what kind of candy they might use for each organ. We ended up using the following candies: We used a simple box cake. I let the kids bake the cake themselves, which gave an added bonus lesson of math and measurements in the kitchen! Tape that down as well. When deciding what course of action to take for symptomatic gallstones, doctors usually choose from among three main treatment options: Watchful waiting, nonsurgical therapy, and surgical removal of the gallbladder.

Though a gallstone episode can be extremely painful or frightening, almost a third to half of all people who experience an attack never have a recurrence. In some cases, the stone dissolves or becomes dislodged and thereby resumes its "silence.

Even when the patient has had repeated gallstone episodes, the doctor may postpone treatment or surgery because of other health concerns. If your surgery has been delayed, you should remain under a doctor's care and report any recurrences of gallstone symptoms immediately.

If you are unable or unwilling to go through surgery for a gallstone problem that requires treatment, your doctor may recommend one of several noninvasive techniques.

Note that though these methods may destroy symptom-causing gallstones, they can do nothing to prevent others from forming, and recurrence is common. Some gallstones can be dissolved through the use of a bile salt, although the procedure can be used only with stones formed from cholesterol and not from bile pigments. The drug Actigall ursodiol is taken as a tablet; depending on its size, the gallstone may take months or even years to go away.

Because some stones are calcified, this treatment often doesn't work. Another nonsurgical technique, shock wave therapy, uses high-frequency sound waves to fragment the stones. Bile salt is administered afterward to dissolve small pieces. This therapy is rarely used. Doctors can also attempt to remove gallstones during an ERCP.

During the procedure an instrument is inserted through the endoscope to attempt removal of the stone. While these therapies may work for some, all of the above nonsurgical therapies are usually unsuccessful long term since recurrence is common and are rarely advised in clinical practice.

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