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Poultry industry is a multi billion naira industry: Take a second to think about that. According to Wikipedia, full daylight corresponds to about 10 — 25 lux edit. The relationships between the various forms of Zn and how their interaction is related to other chemical factors is reviewed by Barrow The ability to function at a high level, both physically and mentally, during extended periods without food may have been of fundamental importance in our evolutionary history. But I think stressing about it will cause more damage than anything else. But it was worth the journey.

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So Eliezer nuked the whole thread, and banned further discussion on the topic. There is barely any newspaper article about LW not mentioning the basilisk. Of course, the fact that the newspapers mention the basilisk in articles about LW just provides further evidence that deep inside, the rationality community is truly about the basilisk; they just want to keep is secret from the non-cultists.

There is no way to win this. Essentially, anything other than talking endlessly about the basilisk makes some people unhappy.

Then everyone gets bored. And then the debate starts again. For some reason, the fact that many people never heard about the basilisk is not considered to be sufficient evidence that the rationalist community is actually not truly about the basilisk. In short, he was trying to herd a bunch of cats who were stricken with genuine terror that they were sinners in the hands of an angry god. Your description of the basilisk incident seems mostly right to me, but a little too soft on Yudkowsky.

He also seemed super coy about what was dangerous about it. So here is the speculative part. Revelation of priors—I was raised in one of the first evangelical mega churches so I have developed an allergy to cultish groups. If that were a thing I expected to happen given some particular design, which it never was, then I would just build a different AI instead—what kind of monster or idiot do people take me for?

Furthermore, the Newcomblike decision theories that are one of my major innovations say that rational agents ignore blackmail threats and meta-blackmail threats and so on. I think what happened is something along the lines of: And then the whole thing backfired amazingly. Imagine that Eliezer would instead completely calmly address the issue, do some mathematical magic, publish a formal proof that the Basilisk would actually not work, and invite other people to do the peer review.

Two weeks later, someone would say: But I guess that could actually be fixed. Here is the new improved Basilisk 2. Then, Eliezer or someone else would do some mathematical magic and publish another formal proof that Basilisk 2.

Two weeks later, there would be a Basilisk 3. Followed by an article saying that even Basilisk 3. Followed, two weeks later, by Basilisk 4. Okay… one possibility is that this line of research would actually never lead to anything truly dangerous. All proposed Basilisks would fail, perhaps each for a different reason, but ultimately nothing bad would happen, only a few people would spend a lot of time doing unusual math. And maybe we would learn something new and exciting as a side effect.

But, for the sake of argument, imagine that after a lot of research, Basilisk would finally turn out to be correct, after all possible problems were found, addressed, and fixed. How incredibly stupid would this whole endeavor seem in hindsight. So much effort spent… for what purpose exactly? To build a machine that will reliably torture you, and to achieve a few karma points on a web forum before that happens?

And imagine trying to stop this process in the middle. Imagine that after publishing the research disproving Basilisk 5. My guess is that two weeks later, Basilisk 6. If not at Less Wrong, then simply somewhere else. The fact that Eliezer would object against it would merely make the whole thing much more fun.

You could also make a design that is mathematically flawed, but seems convincing enough to most people. Or maybe the whole issue is a complete nonsense, but talking about it would inoculate people against the whole idea of Friendly AI, forever.

Or maybe just one really powerful and sufficiently paranoid person would get nervous, and decide that the safest solution is to make the whole MIRI team disappear. Or someone unrelated would start a literal cult of Basilisk, and declare that all AI researchers who refuse to build it have to be punished any maybe Basilisk 6.

Shortly, the actually bad Basilisk does not even have to be mathematically correct, only easy to abuse for psychological manipulation. But the real emotional issue, I guess, is the shock reaction after you meet some very smart people and say: Even after the gun fails to fire, your faith in sanity of at least a very tiny proportion of humanity gets seriously damaged.

For those who believe that the idea of superhuman AI is nonsense in principle, just imagine any other area of research. One of the reasons that the basilisk made LW look bad is that just the fact that people took it seriously , even to reject it, makes LW look bad.

The ideas that you need to believe in order for the basilisk to even register as plausible are profoundly weird. In fact, I once learned something new and important about my own field from him, though I doubt he recognized the significance of his own comment.

As a bit of evidence that one can, to some degree, identify the smart people and weight their views more heavily, I was corresponding with Robin well before he went back to school to become an official economist—because it was obvious that he was a smart guy who had an original and important idea in my field idea futures.

I have a short list of people who, when they disagree with me, cause me to seriously consider that I may be mistaken. Wittgenstein, with Russell, and Walter Pitts, also with Russell. Cambridge mathematicians are just magnets for tragic lone geniuses or something. Some of these examples are just… really bad.

I guess I focused on that particular fact; but I really was making a point about P vs NP and maybe a few other similar problems, because that particular problem stands out in other ways. Not a lot there to indicate one should disbelieve it. By contrast, nothing like that really exists for P vs NP.

Appel and Haken, again, similar reasons. Not outsiders, not an exception. P vs NP really is pretty exceptional. But like P vs NP? I really, really doubt it. But basically we have a few different things going on here. Is this person an outsider? Is this person a crank? Did this person claim to solve a famous open problem? Obviously these are somewhat related. Cranks are almost always outsiders. Claiming to have solved a famous open problem while an outsider is something of a sign of crankhood.

If someone claims to have proven P! Then the question becomes, how do you tell cranks from mere outsiders? As has already been mentioned, Appel, Haken, and Wiles are not outsiders at all. Depends on the details, I suppose. Wittgenstein Russell apparently initially thought was a crank but kept him on anyway for some reason. Not a full outsider but still basically an outsider for the purposes here.

But very little about Royen or his work seems crankish, just outsiderish. That seems distinctly crankish. I think I would correctly recognize Royen as not a crank… unless I knew in advance about the vanity journal thing. Then I would probably have mistakenly written him off. Yes, the eventual solvers were not outsiders. I guess I mentally filled in my own way: I did not work out myself what would be a better policy for the Bank of Japan. I believed the arguments of Scott Sumner, who is not literally mainstream yet , but whose position is shared by many other economists.

I sided with a particular band of contrarian expert economists, based on my attempt to parse the object-level arguments, observing from the sidelines for a while to see who was right about near-term predictions and picking up on what previous experience suggested were strong cues of correct contrarianism. My unfair hostile reading on the rationalist community is that it is chock full of people who make the same basic errors as math crackpots.

This is not entirely fair in the sense that the rationality community is also full of very nice, and well meaning, and often smart people who I am quite sympathetic to, and in who I find much to admire. But this is sort of the tragic flaw that unites them.

Rationalists and religious people have two different flawed ways of thinking, and math crackpots and conspiracy theorists take those two flawed ways of thinking and draw out their consequence with even more harmful conclusions.

The way of thinking that leads to the conclusion that religious beliefs as concrete claims about the world are reasonable is fundamentally the same way of thinking that leads to the conclusion that conspiracy theories are reasonable.

Of course the critical implication here is not infinitely strong: But the large majority of both are false. In a similar way, the rationalist error here would be overemphasizing personal ability or at least the abilities of their rather local tribe, and this is fundamentally the same way of thinking that leads to math crackpots. Again the critical implication is not infinitely strong.

Nonetheless, the implications of this way of thinking are mostly false; as I said in another comment, it is certainly true that Yudkowsky and his associates are smarter than average.

These might be even more closely associated than I suggested, in the sense that both kinds of errors the religious and rationalist are an overemphasis of an Inside View to the neglect of an Outside View. Still, they are not exactly the same thing.

I called this the fair way of putting things because it is not literally true that religious people are as such conspiracy theorists, and similarly not literally true that rationalists are math crackpots.

But the roots of those errors are there. I think the fair way to put this would be rationalists: How nice of these non-credentialed folks to share the real value of pi with you. I hope you thank them appropriately. The things the math department does to protect their status is limitless. The vast majority of academics, despite being publicly financed, are precisely useless for society outside of teaching.

What makes you think the problem could have been solved trivially with their help? And also, when people walk into the math department for help with math, even just basic calculus, we do generally help them. Funny about the timeshare thing. I had no idea they were supposed to be a con. Can the actual book possibly be even half as entertaining as your review of it, Scott? The guy did write HP: The bits with the three characters talking to each other are funny. I was really excited about the preview chapters laying out the questions.

Remember how WhatsApp succeeded in the crowded field of instant messaging in ? How did they manage? Do similar opportunities still exist? Here is a hint: It missed the biggest difference between signal and telegram, signal is foss, this alone makes it more secure, and you can commission or carry out yourself if you have the time an expertise an independent security audit if you want, this alone makes it way more secure.

If there is a market niche where it makes sense for there ultimately to be one dominant player, then when that market niche first appears there will be at least probably exactly one company making a play for that space that will ex post be wildly successful.

The hard part is identifying which one will win ex ante. It was possible to pick it up and have it but not without doing the work to earn it. Put together the team, get the funding, do the development, do the marketing, purchase the servers, make it secure etc etc. For another useful analogy, compare the work of a hunter gatherer not onerous to one of a farmer onerous. Gathering free energy is always desirable, not always possible.

Conversely, I found the book gave short but excellent advice on how to resolve the interminable conflict between the inside and outside views — the only way you can: Take each case by hand, make bets, and see how you come out. Did you bet that this education startup would fail because you believed the education market was adequate? And did you lose? Then you should update away from trusting the outside view here. Which I think is a very good direction to push.

One of them, therefore, may be the real Scott Alexander. Unfortunately, not everything can be resolved with a bet. This is surely an interesting read, but I think it belongs to epistemic rationality, not instrumental rationality.

It is also because the errors in object level thinking are best resolved in the object level too. What is the best course of action: Of course checking a belief on the object level takes more effort than making a simple status comparison, but if you really care about the correctness of that belief, it is usually worth it. One day, you get an idea about how it might be proved. So you forget about it and get back to your usual life.

So you write it down, show to some of your math savvy friends and they fail to find an error. One of them points out an error in your proof. Turns out, you have incorrectly understood one of the math results you used in your derivations. Then you ask your math professor to take a look at it, and he fails to find an error too.

You feel like you are an above-average driver. So you ponder over how you can actually evaluate your driving performance for a few minutes. You are in a psych ward and firmly believe that you are Jesus.

Since you are gone too far down the schizoid path to think straight, neither object- nor meta-level thinking are going to be of much help. However, after a while a doctor appears, injects some haloperidol or whatever, and things start to get better. Thank you for this. How do you figure? From my reading of the sequences, I got the impression that this is exactly what he believes. I share the sentiment.

It is in line with EY frequently being excessively dismissive of academia. Somewhere between all the lectures on status and prestige, I seem to recall a course or forty on math, physics, CS etc. Is it conceivable that this magical tower gives one more than just a diploma for signalling purposes, on occasion?

Perhaps the best students attend the best schools for non-Hansonian reasons? Yes, some people certainly learn things in college. EY seems to put too much weight on the fact which seems incontrovertible to me that they could have learned those things in cheaper and perhaps!

Is it incontrovertible that they could have reliably learned those things cheaper and perhaps! One disadvantage of formal education is that people generally care more about graduating than learning, meaning they are more likely to forget something. Most high school students learn about mitosis in biology. How many of them still remember ten years later? Presumably the ones that go into a biology-related field do. The ones who play Nintendo. I think more of this sort of education sticks around than most people think.

And if somehow mitosis were relevant to something you were doing later, you might at least remember the name, which would help in looking it up. There should be a counter keeping track of how many people have downloaded Inadequate Equilibria , so future readers know how to properly discount reading it as evidence of above-average rationality. Though you should probably buy index funds not individual stocks. Wealthfront seems to agree. I think buying an holding a reasonably diversified set of individual stocks is worse than indexing but better than putting money into bonds.

If you believe in the EMH you should do ok buying and holding a portfolio of random stocks. Theory says you should hold something like the world wealth portfolio, plus be long or short a risk free asset.

This is a slight quibble, but Scott appears to have a misconception about what investment banks do, as many non-finance people seem to. The investment banking business as such consists of underwriting and advising, not investing or banking.

This is somewhat confusing because nowadays most of the large investment banks do basically everything: Smaller firms are usually more focused. Though some large firms e. Fidelity are pure asset managers. Calling Exxon a refiner while talking about exploration and production is incongruent.

Of course, thanks to regulations e. Came here to say something likely less eloquent than this. Also lol at Bear Stearns being used as the example. From reading the review only, none of this sounds new. There are plenty of papers on every single one of the above points. However, from the review, it really does not sound like Eliezer deserves credit for creating a toolbox of concepts for analyzing these problems or for raising new kinds of problems. People started thinking about this a long time ago, have developed a toolbox that contains these concepts as a strict subset, and have definitely not stopped working on them.

EY absolutely addresses that in the book. My view is that this is best done from a framework of incentives and the equilibria of those incentives—which is to say, from the standpoint of microeconomics. I am now going to introduce some concepts [i. Since the idea of civilizational adequacy seems fairly useful and general, I initially wondered whether it might be a known idea under some other name in economics textbooks. But my friend Robin Hanson, a professional economist at an academic institution well-known for its economists, has written a lot of material that I see from this theoretical perspective as doing backwards reasoning from inadequacy to incentives.

If there were a widespread economic notion of adequacy that he were invoking, or standard models of academic incentives and academic inadequacy, I would expect him to cite them. It sounds like Eleizer is being more modest. Exploitable sounds like an adjective version of arbitrage opportunity. Robin and other economists reviewed the book prior to publication, and the book talks quite a bit about EMH efficiency and Pareto efficiency.

Central bankers and other people presumably also try to do their job properly, and not making the economy blow up is part of that. You central bank guys? What did you do to let this happen? And every economist in the world will be writing opinion columns and giving interviews to TV and radio about how yes, the Japanese central bankers made the stupidest elementary mistake, and this is the proof that it was wrong because of this economic theory which is backed up by this evidence.

Scott Sumner has been making the push that the Western economies have had too restrictive economic policy, which CAUSED the Great Recession as opposed to the financial crash being the principal cause , and has mentioned Japan in the past. But here is also what Scott Sumner said: The Great Recession was caused by tight money at the Fed, and other major central banks.

To prevent the Great Recession, Fed policy would have had to stray far from the consensus view of professional economists. The logic is the same logic that suggests Japan was wrong not to print more money. A large number of the experts are wrong. Keep in mind, though, that the basic reason for the failure of economists here is more or less spelled out above: To be fair, at least in Ireland, some of our banks were just taking the piss. In a proper democracy, there would have been a revolution and a few exemplary tumbrils to the guillotine to sort all this out.

We simply knuckled under to our government taking out huge debts to prop up the banks and bondholders and engaged in eight years of hairshirt economics. Though he did spend some time in jail — a whole nine weeks! If you are reasonably sure that high supply is better for the economy, and decide against it because you fear becoming a scapegoat in case something goes wrong, then you are in fact prioritizing your prestige over doing your job properly.

Perhaps expecting people to stick with the right choice in situations like these is a standard too high, but still. If you are reasonably sure. Everyone knows what you do in a situation like this!

Ben Bernanke basically did write about how dumb the Japanese were in the 90s. Or look at Paul Krugman lately. A huge number of academic economists correctly predicted that the Euro would be a huge disaster. I could go on and on. A few minutes later I edited the conclusion which was not very well formulated, and the comment disappeared.

If so, can Scott retrieve it and censor whatever is deemed problematic? Or is it lost forever until I retype it? Or I guess it could also be that I accidentally misclicked self-reported or deleted it. Sorry for creating additional work this way, I actually expected a prompt to confirm the report Seeing that prompt would have helped me determine whether I had already clicked through it by mistake. Use Lazarus , it has saved me many times. If you use Firefox, this may work. I ran into that a while back.

Try logging out of the site click your logon name at the top right-hand corner of the page and select Log Out and then back in. I checked and most of the thing I was saying have already been mentioned in this comment on Kolmogorov Complicity a month ago, and are expanded on in the blog post linked to in the following comment. You would not believe how interested I am to read this comment! What did you object to or dislike?

That is certainly true. The problem is that he assumes that he and his readers are extra super-duper smarter than average. That is certainly false. Libertarians influenced by Hayek but not just libertarians identified a fourth entry point of evil into the world, which is the converse of the second way: From this, you get things like the Socialist calculation problem corollary: Socialism is evil or community redevelopment schemes that tear down vibrant and mostly-functional neighborhoods to be replaced with something even more Molochy.

I understand the impetus differently. Eliezer has unusual ideas about AI danger, cryonics, etc. Be careful of arguments that are couched in generalities but which are really there to support a specific set of positions that goes mostly unsaid. Furthermore, AI risk is just the tip of the iceberg. Experts generally consider cryonics to be bunk, and do not consider physicists who reject many worlds to thus be incompetent.

OpenAI has more backing. AI comes up frequently in the book, and gets discussed at length in the cut chapter. AI being very dangerous does not seem to be an outlandish idea either Bill Gates, Nick Bostrom, Elon Musk, Stuart Russel, every organization worrying about X risk I have found while researching this topic for the first time. It is certainly true that the number of people who have not voiced publicly that they think it can destroy the world is larger than the number of people who have, but I think the bar for truth of the above statement is much higher.

Are there sources for that? So there is a definite track record of being confidently opposed to expert scientific consensus on this issue.

I agree that it is necessary, in the sense of being relevant. I argued it might be neither kind nor true. I also agree that the hypothetical motive is internally consistent. This was also part of the reasoning behind the recent grant from the Open Philantropy Project. Man, am I torn about this book. If only someone would write a book telling me how to reconcile these two perspectives. The number of smart people who like him or have even heard of him is a tiny percentage of the total number of smart people in existence.

It just looks large because when you have the entire population of the Internet to choose from, even just a few people looks large. Last week David Chapman wrote about what was clearly the same thing, even centering around the same key example of whether Pluto is a planet. It happened for a lot of people, Eliezer is very good at presenting ideas they did not yet understand in a way that helped them understand them. You probably heard the same ideas from somewhere else.

It might also be a stylistic thing. You seem to find arrogance off-putting. For people like you it turns you off to the whole essay. Enough people are really enthusiastic about young-earth creationism, or Dianetics, or Tony Robbins, that a lot of them are probably smarter than me.

We are put here to transcend, not even merely to rise-to-meet. Certainly not to be bogged down in a mire. So part of what I found refreshing about his writing is surely its exact opposite view of life to certain zeitgeist-flows people get trapped in. I remember a pub talk where one economist told me that several years ago Japanese did in fact try primary emission hoping to cause inflation.

If they had correctly realised that monetary policy works in part through communication of expectations, they would have understood that their actual policy was:. And lo and behold, that is exactly what they achieved , all the while complaining terribly about it!

Market Monetarism always seemed like magic voodoo to me. Because Market Monetarists believe that the market is right. Provided the market is allowed to function properly, it should incorporate all of the evidence available on the path of monetary policy. Policymaker public remarks are included in that evidence, but the market presumably weights the believability of those statements.

The Australian Central Bank announces they are cutting interest rates by a quarter percent. The Federal Reserve does the same. David Hume had a good example to illustrate how this works. If you give them money equal to that right now then before too long prices will all double.

If you credibly promise to give them that same amount after one month then people will spend down their savings in anticipation.

Sure, people who are liquidity constrained will be able to spend a bit more and prices will go up a bit. But mostly people will hoard the money for the end of the month and nothing much will happen despite the money supply doubling. Here, you have what is yours. You knew that I reap where I have not sown and gather where I scattered no seed?

But from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Suppose you have two identical tech companies save for their boards. Both announce a bold new move into quantum computing. Board A has a habit of announcing bold new moves, then backing off them a month later. Board B sticks to such announcements. The share price of A and B will not react in the same way to the news, and there is nothing strange about this.

The sum of those future actions is far larger than anything but the most extreme present-day action, so expectations about those future actions are critical to setting the current price. If A and B both set up equally successful quantum computing divisions, the total market reaction to both will be equal, just that the market reaction to B is more front-loaded as people trust the board.

I would consult this post: The BoJ set a target of no inflation, so whenever they printed enough money to start sparking inflation, they stopped printing more. There are two components, supply and demand. You only get the growth you want if supply outpaces the demand.

Though to be fair your blog automatically gets credit with me, because unlike most blogs on the internet, yours has an easily reachable public page with the full table of contents of all blog entries.

Thank you for that. Are we all joking? None of us joking? A lot of them seem to be in the self-help genre or this kind of quirky self-publishing effort. Or the smart money may suspect it, but they have lower confidence than Alice. Or the smart money has ten thousand other potential investments on ten thousand other time horizons that they prefer to buying Google today.

As far as I can tell, it is perfectly allowable by the inviolable cosmic laws of the Invisible Hand that Alice could be exactly right, could purchase Google stock today and could make a lot of money in five years. And the answer is that you may sell that ETF if you think you have a better bet elsewhere, on a different time horizon. Or consider Tesla, which is a blackhole where billions of dollars disappear, never to be seen again.

Why should Alice trust her views on the engineering more than the smart money, anyways? Goldman Sachs has enough money to hire engineers. American capital markets are deep and liquid. The answer to your question is that Alice should assume the market has correctly priced everything about Google except the one thing where she disagrees with the consensus view.

She should try to guesstimate how important that one thing is and, if it is important and positive and she is confident, buy the stock. That was the basis on which I made several successful investiments a very long time ago.

The first was a little after the Macintosh came out. I was a professor in the Tulane business school and mentioned to a colleague that I was thinking of buying a Mac.

I thought about what that question implied. The machines were about the same size, but the Mac was using a Motorola instead of an Intel —a much more powerful CPU which, if I remember correctly, was previously used mostly for multi-user machines.

The reason it was using that CPU was that it needed it to run a graphic interface. I had been using a computer a superclone of the TRS80 at that point for years and had seen a film on the Xerox Parc work with graphic interfaces.

I concluded that the graphic interface was very important and that my colleague was probably a fair sample of the ignorance of almost everyone investing in the market, so I bought Apple stock. I later bought Microsoft stock due to a related argument that also turned out to be correct.

You need a larger sample size to prove you can successfully beat the market, unfortunately. The biggest issue I have with your scenario is using your colleague as an example of the typical investor. That seems like a big leap, and also most Apple ownership these days is by institutional investors.

I also think you are incorrect in your belief that Goldman Sachs or any other institutional investor seeks expert opinions for every move it makes.

Importing money IS the capital glut. If we had a capital scarcity, we would have rising interest rates. Instead, cheap cash is pushing interest rates down. For economies at peak employment, like we probably are now? And if the topic has been in the news like self driving cars have then Goldman Sachs has probably already hired the engineers so only take this approach for important topics the public is not aware of.

Eliezer did not claim and nor, I think, does anyone that market prices today are correct forever. So Alice can stand to make money on the market given that she has correct long-term knowledge. Error in the prediction grows as a function of time, so current price says more about the price tomorrow than the price next week, and more about that than next month, and so on.

Would it be okay for someone to post a passage from the book that mentions this? As time passes more public knowledge becomes available, hence the expected value changes. For a trivial example, consider a bet on a flip of a coin—I get a dollar if it is heads, nothing if it is tails.

Before the coin is flipped the expected value of that bet is fifty cents. After it is flipped and before the money is paid out it is either zero or a dollar. The thing is that most information about a companies we hear about is generally has actionable timelines of a quarter to a year. The rate of inhibition was dose-dependent, increasing as the concentration of ginger compounds increased.

Thus, the ginger extract may have a chemotherapeutic effect in the treatment of liver cancer. As the two constituents are those most prevalent in ginger, they were predominantly examined, although other components were also evaluated.

With effectiveness varying with the compound, the constituents were successful against a broad spectrum of cancer cells, including human lung, leukemia, skin, ovarian, and colon cancer cells, as well as mouse skin and lung cancer cells.

It was found that gingerols and shogaols activated transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 TRPV1 , which detects and regulates body temperature. The pungent constituents also increased adrenaline secretion, which heats the body. After ingesting experimental doses of air dried ginger powder, at 0. Evidence of anti-oxidation was evident in decreased lipid peroxidation, and an increase in fibrinolytic activity meant that wound-healing capabilities also increased. This distinct protection from the development of atherosclerosis by ginger is probably because of its free radical scavenging, prostaglandin inhibitory and fibri properties.

As a seasoning, it spans continents, finding its way through Thai, Indian, Chinese, and other Asian cuisines, and into western baked goods, ales, and sauces. As a supplement, it provides valuable minerals, bridging the gap between diet and medicine. Therapeutically, it works on many conditions, operating synergistically to bring balance through various modalities. It does all this while stimulating, and protecting the liver. It also simultaneously aids in inflammatory and cancerous conditions.

The remarkable thing about ginger is that these tissues can range from an arthritic and degenerated joint, to an obstructed airway, to an organ recovering from cancer. As if that was not enough, ginger also enhances cardiovascular health. As a food with a long-history of use throughout the world, its harmful side effects are minimal, especially when compared to many pharmaceuticals.

Sula, Parinamasula and Amlapitta are clinical entities recognized by ayurveda, akin to peptic ulcer and functional dyspepsia. Many indigenous drugs have been advocated in ayurveda for treatment of dyspepsia. Our laboratory has been engaged in screening of various indigenous herbal and metallic drugs for their potential use in peptic ulcer diseases, taking lead from Ayurveda and have reported anti-ulcer and ulcerhealing properties of Tectona grandis lapachol , Rhamnus procumbens kaempferol , Rhamnus triquerta emodin , Withania somnifera acylsteryl glycoside , Shilajit fulvic acid and carboxymethoxybiphenyl , Datura fastuosa withafastuosin E , Fluggea microcarpa and Aegle marmelos pyrano- and iso- coumarins etc.

The present article includes the detailed exploration of ulcer protective and healing effects of unripe plantain banana, tambrabhasma and Asparagus racemosus on various models of experimental gastroduodenal ulceration and patients with peptic ulcer. Their effects on mucin secretion, mucosal cell shedding, cell proliferation, anti-oxidant activity, glycoproteins, and PG synthesis have been reported.

Clinical trials of these drugs for evaluating their potential ulcer healing effects in peptic ulcer patients have been done. Their potential ulcer protective effects both, experimental and clinical seemed to be due to their predominant effects on various mucosal defensive factors rather than on the offensive acid-pepsin secretion.

The antimicrobial properties of various extracts of Allium cepa onions and Zingiber officinale ginger against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis that are common cause of gastrointestinal tract infections were investigated using the cup-plate diffusion method. The result obtained revealed that ethanolic extract of ginger gave the widest zone of inhibition against two out of the three test organisms at the concentration of 0. However, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were more sensitive to the extract of onion bulbs compared to Bacillus subtilis which was predominantly resistant.

It was also observed that the solvent of extraction and its varying concentrations affected the sensitivity of two of the test organisms to the plant materials. The minimum inhibitory concentration MIC of ginger extracts on the test organisms ranged from 0. This investigation indicates that, though both plants had antimicrobial activities on the two gram negative test organisms but not effective on the gram positive test organism, ginger had more inhibitory effect thus confirming their use in folk medicine.

To evaluate the effects of ginger on gastric motility and emptying, abdominal symptoms, and hormones that influence motility in dyspepsia. Eleven patients with functional dyspepsia were studied twice in a randomized double-blind manner. After an 8-h fast, the patients ingested three capsules that contained ginger total 1.

Gastrointestinal sensations and appetite were scored using visual analog questionnaires, and blood was taken for measurement of plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1 , motilin and ghrelin concentrations, at intervals throughout the study. Gastric emptying was more rapid after ginger than placebo [median range half-emptying time Ginger stimulated gastric emptying and antral contractions in patients with functional dyspepsia, but had no impact on gastrointestinal symptoms or gut peptides.

SK Chuau, et al. Ginger has been reported to improve upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Little information about the effects of ginger on gastric motor function, exists, however. Our aim was to investigate the effects of ginger on gastric emptying, antral motility, proximal gastric dimensions, and postprandial symptoms. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were studied twice in a randomized double-blind manner.

After an 8 h fast, the volunteers ingested three ginger capsules total mg or placebo, followed after 1 h by ml low-nutrient soup. Antral area, fundus area and diameter, and the frequency of antral contractions were measured using ultrasound at frequent intervals over 90 min, and the gastric half-emptying time was calculated from the change in antral area.

Gastrointestinal sensations and appetite were scored using visual analog questionnaires. Fundus dimensions did not differ, and there was no significant difference in any gastrointestinal symptoms. Ginger accelerates gastric emptying and stimulates antral contractions in healthy volunteers. These effects could potentially be beneficial in symptomatic patient groups. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ginger extract on delayed gastric emptying, developing ventilator-associated pneumonia, and clinical outcomes in adult respiratory distress syndrome ARDS.

Thirty-two ARDS patients who were dependent on mechanical ventilation and fed via nasogastric tube were studied. After enrollment, patients were randomized to 2 groups. The control group received 1 g of coconut oil as placebo, and the study group received mg of ginger extract.

The amount of feeding tolerated at the first 48 hours of feeding, amount of feeding tolerated during the entire study period, nosocomial pneumonia, number of intensive care unit ICU -free days, number of ventilator-free days, and mortality were evaluated during 21 days of intervention. The overall in-ICU mortality was This study showed that gastric feed supplementation with ginger extract might reduce delayed gastric emptying and help reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in ARDS.

Owyang Chung, et al. Ginger has long been used as an alternative medication to prevent motion sickness. The mechanism of its action, however, is unknown. We hypothesize that ginger ameliorates the nausea associated with motion sickness by preventing the development of gastric dysrhythmias and the elevation of plasma vasopressin.

Thirteen volunteers with a history of motion sickness underwent circular vection, during which nausea scored 0—3, i. Circular vection induced a maximal nausea score of 2. Pretreatment with ginger 1, and 2, mg reduced the nausea, tachygastria, and plasma vasopressin. Ginger also prolonged the latency before nausea onset and shortened the recovery time after vection cessation. In this manner, ginger may act as a novel agent in the prevention and treatment of motion sickness.

Torben Brask, et al. In a double-blind randomized placebo trial, the effect of the powdered rhizome of ginger Zingiber officinale was tested on seasickness. Eighty naval cadets, unaccustomed to sailing in heavy seas reported during voyages on the high seas, symptoms of seasickness every hour for 4 consecutive hours after ingestion of 1 g of the drug or placebo.

Remarkably fewer symptoms of nausea and vertigo were reported after ginger root ingestion, but the difference was not statistically significant. N Chaiyakunapruk, et al. The aim of this study was to specifically determine the impact of a fixed dose of ginger administration, compared with placebo, on the hour postoperative nausea and vomiting.

The design was a systematic review and metaanalysis of trials revealed by searches. Two reviewers selected studies for inclusion and independently extracted data. Five randomized trials including a total of patients were pooled for analysis of preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting and postoperative vomiting. The summary relative risks of ginger for postoperative nausea and vomiting and postoperative vomiting were 0. Only one side effect, abdominal discomfort, was reported.

This meta-analysis demonstrates that a fixed dose at least 1 g of ginger is more effective than placebo for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting and postoperative vomiting. Use of ginger is an effective means for reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting CINV are major adverse effects of chemotherapy.

Ginger has been used in postoperative and pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Data on its utility in reducing CINV in children and young adults are lacking. Ginger root powder was effective in reducing severity of acute and delayed CINV as additional therapy to ondensetron and dexamethasone in patients receiving high emetogenic chemotherapy. T Chisaka, et al. The effect of bile secretion in rats was examined in order to clarify the stomachic action of ginger and also to investigate its active constituents.

The results showed that mainly the acetone extracts of ginger, which contain essential oils and pungent principles, caused an increase in the bile secretion. Further analyses for the active constituents of the acetone extracts through column chromatography indicated that [6]-gingerol and [10]-gingerol, which are the pungent principles, are mainly responsible for the cholagogic effect of ginger.

Free radicals generated from the xenobiotic metabolism can induce lesions of the liver and react with the basic cellular constituents — proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA. Aqueous extract of Z. Administration of single dose of aqueous extract of Z. Further the hepatic antioxidant status was enhanced in the Z.

The results of the present study concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Z. Suresh Kumar, et al. To investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy of 6-gingerol against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The mice were sacrificed 4 h after acetaminophen injection to determine the activities of liver marker enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase AST , alanine aminotransferase ALT and alkaline phosphatase ALP , total bilirubin in serum, and lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione transferase and glutathione in liver homogenate.

The results evidently demonstrate that 6-gingerol has promising hepatoprotective effect which is comparable to the standard drug silymarin. Harish Nayaka Mysore Annaiah, et al. Zinger officinale has been used as a traditional source against gastric disturbances from time immemorial. The ulcer-preventive properties of aqueous extract of ginger rhizome GRAE belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is reported in the present study.

M Park, et al. Ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been used widely as a food spice and an herbal medicine. In particular, its gingerol-related components have been reported to possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties, as well as several pharmaceutical properties. However, the effective ginger constituents that inhibit the growth of oral bacteria associated with periodontitis in the human oral cavity have not been elucidated.

This study revealed that the ethanol and n-hexane extracts of ginger exhibited antibacterial activities against three anaerobic Gram- negative bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC , Porphyromonas endodontalis ATCC and Prevotella intermedia ATCC , causing periodontal diseases. CY Chen, et al. Extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii XDRAB is a growing and serious nosocomial infection worldwide, such that developing new agents against it is critical.

The antimicrobial activities of the rhizomes from Zingiber officinale, known as ginger, have not been proven in clinical bacterial isolates with extensive drug- resistance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of four known components of ginger, [6]- dehydrogingerdione, [10]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol, against clinical XDRAB. Combined with tetracycline, they showed good resistance modifying effects to modulate tetracycline resistance. After the antioxidant property was blocked, their antimicrobial effects were abolished significantly.

These results indicate that ginger compounds have antioxidant effects that partially contribute to their antimicrobial activity and are candidates for use in the treatment of infections with XDRAB. The natural product ginger Zingiber officinale has active constituents gingerol, Shogaol and Zerumbone, while turmeric Curcuma longa contains three active major curcuminoids, namely, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. They have the same scientific classification and are reported to have anti-inflammatory and many therapeutic effects.

This article reviews the physiological and therapeutic effects of ginger and turm eric on some endocrine gland functions, and signal pathways involved to mediate their actions. These multiple mechanisms of protection against inflammation and oxidative damage make ginger and curcumin particularly promising natural agents in fighting the ravages of aging and degenerative diseases, and need to be paid more attention by studies. The anti-inflammatory properties of ginger have been known and valued for centuries.

During the past 25 years, many laboratories have provided scientific support for the long-held belief that ginger contains constituents with antiinflammatory properties.

Identification of the molecular targets of individual ginger constituents provides an opportunity to optimize and standardize ginger products with respect to their effects on specific biomarkers of inflammation.

Such preparations will be useful for studies in experimental animals and humans. MK Balijepalli, et al. Zingiberaceae has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic, Chinese and Tibb-Unani herbal medicines for the treatment of various illnesses that involve inflammation and which are caused by oxidative stress. Although gingerols and shogaols are the major bioactive compounds present in Zingiber officinale, their molecular mechanisms of actions and the relationship between their structural features and the activity have not been well studied.

The aim of the present study was to examine and compare the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of gingerols and their natural analogues to determine their structure-activity relationship and molecular mechanisms. The in vitro activities of the compounds [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol were evaluated for scavenging of 1,1-diphenylpicyrlhydrazyl DPPH , superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, inhibition of N-formyl- methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine f-MLP induced reactive oxygen species ROS production in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils PMN , inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced nitrite and prostaglandin E 2 production in RAW In the antioxidant activity assay, [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol exhibited substantial scavenging activities with IC 50 values of The carbon chain length has also played a significant role in making gingerol as the most potent among all the gingerols.

This study justifies the use of dry ginger in traditional systems of medicine. Therefore, the ability of a well-characterized crude ginger extract to inhibit joint swelling in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis, streptococcal cell wall SCW -induced arthritis, was compared to that of a fraction containing only gingerols and their derivatives. Both extracts were efficacious in preventing joint inflammation. In conclusion, these data document a very significant joint-protective effect of these ginger samples, and suggest that non-gingerol components are bioactive and can enhance the antiarthritic effects of the more widely studied gingerols.

Wenkui Li, et al. Ginger roots have been used to treat inflammation and have been reported to inhibit cyclooxygenase COX. Ultrafiltration liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used to screen a chloroform partition of a methanol extract of ginger roots for COX-2 ligands, and gingerol, gingerol, 8-shogaol, shogaol, 6-gingerdione, 8- gingerdione, gingerdione, 6-dehydrogingerol, 6-paradol, and 8-paradol bound to the enzyme active site. No inhibition of COX-1 was detected.

Therefore, gingerol, 8-shogaol and shogaol inhibit COX-2 but not COX-1, which can explain, in part, anti-inflammatory properties of ginger. RD Altman, et al. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a standardized and highly concentrated extract of 2 ginger species, Zingiber officinale and Alpinia galanga EV.

EXT 77 , in patients with osteoarthritis OA of the knee. Two hundred sixty-one patients with OA of the knee and moderate-to-severe pain were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group, 6-week study. After washout, patients received ginger extract or placebo twice daily, with acetaminophen allowed as rescue medication. The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of responders experiencing a reduction in "knee pain on standing," using an intent-to-treat analysis.

Analysis of the secondary efficacy variables revealed a consistently greater response in the ginger extract group compared with the control group, when analyzing mean values: Change in global status and reduction in intake of rescue medication were numerically greater in the ginger extract group.

Change in quality of life was equal in the 2 groups. Patients receiving ginger extract experienced more gastrointestinal GI adverse events than did the placebo group 59 patients versus 21 patients. GI adverse events were mostly mild. A highly purified and standardized ginger extract had a statistically significant effect on reducing symptoms of OA of the knee. This effect was moderate. There was a good safety profile, with mostly mild GI adverse events in the ginger extract group.

This paper is a report of a study to explicate the phenomenon of ginger compresses for people with osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is claimed to be the leading cause of musculoskeletal pain and disability in Western society. Ginger has been applied externally for over a thousand years in China to manage arthritis symptoms. Husserlian phenomenological methodology was used and the data were collected in Ten purposively selected adults who had suffered osteoarthritis for at least a year kept daily diaries and made drawings, and follow-up interviews and telephone conversations were conducted.

Seven themes were identified in the data: The essential experience of ginger compresses exposed the unique qualities of heat, stimulation, anti-inflammation and analgesia. Nurses could consider this therapy as part of a holistic treatment for people with osteoarthritis symptoms. Controlled research is needed with larger numbers of older people to explore further the effects of the ginger compress therapy.

SY Kim, et al. Inflammatory processes in the central nervous system play an important role in a number of neurodegenerative diseases mediated by microglial activation, which results in neuronal cell death.

Microglia act in immune surveillance and host defense while resting. When activated, they can be deleterious to neurons, even resulting in neurodegeneration. Therefore, the inhibition of microglial activation is considered a useful strategy in searching for neuroprotective agents. In this study, we investigated the effects of 6-shogaol, a pungent agent from Zingiber officinale Roscoe, on microglia activation in BV-2 and primary microglial cell cultures.

The effect was better than that of 6-gingerol, wogonin, or N-monomethyl-l-arginine, agents previously reported to inhibit nitric oxide. In addition, 6-shogaol suppressed the microglial activation induced by LPS both in primary cortical neuron-glia culture and in an in vivo neuroinflammatory model.

Moreover, 6-shogaol showed significant neuroprotective effects in vivo in transient global ischemia via the inhibition of microglia. These results suggest that 6-shogaol is an effective therapeutic agent for treating neurodegenerative diseases. MN Ghayur, et al. Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation and hypersensitivity of airway smooth muscle cells ASMCs to different spasmogens.

The past decade has seen increased use of herbal treatments for many chronic illnesses. Ginger Zingiber officinale is a common food plant that has been used for centuries in treating respiratory illnesses. The proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 is increased in asthmatic patients. Traditionally, ginger is used as an antiinflammatory drug. An extract and several compounds of Zingiber officinale ginger were tested in human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B cells with respect to their effect on lipopolysaccharide LPS -induced secretion of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin 8 IL-8 and RANTES regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted.

Our results suggest that distinct ginger compounds could be used as antiinflammatory drugs in respiratory infections. MS Huang, et al. This study has two novel findings: Moreover, [6]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [10]-gingerol, which are major bioactive compounds present in Zingiber officinale , suppress phthalate ester-mediated airway remodeling.

This study suggests that ginger is capable of preventing phthalate ester-associated asthma. JH Bae, et al. The present study investigated whether [6]-gingerol suppresses interleukin IL -1 beta-induced MUC5AC gene expression in human airway epithelial cells and, if so, examined whether the suppression of MUC5AC gene expression is mediated via the mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK signal transduction pathway.

JK Kundu, et al. Ginger, the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Zingiberaceae , has widely been used as a spice and condiment in different societies. Ginger contains several nonvolatile pungent principles viz. Studies conducted in cultured cells as well as in experimental animals revealed that these pungent phenolics possess anticarcinogenic properties. This chapter summarizes updated information on chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of ginger-derived phenolic substances and their underlying mechanisms.

MS Baliga, et al. The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Zingiberaceae , commonly known as ginger, is one of the most widely used spice and condiment. It is also an integral part of many traditional medicines and has been extensively used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, Tibb-Unani, Srilankan, Arabic, and African traditional medicines, since antiquity, for many unrelated human ailments including common colds, fever, sore throats, vomiting, motion sickness, gastrointestinal complications, indigestion, constipation, arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, cramps, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases, and helminthiasis.

The putative active compounds are nonvolatile pungent principles, namely gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and zingerone. These compounds are some of the extensively studied phytochemicals and account for the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, and gastroprotective activities.

A number of preclinical investigations with a wide variety of assay systems and carcinogens have shown that ginger and its compounds possess chemopreventive and antineoplastic effects. A number of mechanisms have been observed to be involved in the chemopreventive effects of ginger.

The cancer preventive activities of ginger are supposed to be mainly due to free radical scavenging, antioxidant pathways, alteration of gene expressions, and induction of apoptosis, all of which contribute towards decrease in tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. This review provides concise information from preclinical studies with both cell culture models and relevant animal studies by focusing on the mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive action.

The conclusion describes directions for future research to establish its activity and utility as a human cancer preventive and therapeutic drug. The above-mentioned mechanisms of ginger seem to be promising for cancer prevention; however, further clinical studies are warranted to assess the efficacy and safety of ginger.

T Ando, et al. Ginger has been used throughout the world as spice, food and traditional herb. We found that 6-gingerol, a phenolic alkanone isolated from ginger, enhanced the TRAIL-induced viability reduction of gastric cancer cells while 6-gingerol alone affected viability only slightly.

As 6-shogaol has a chemical structure similar to 6-gingerol, we also assessed the effect of 6-shogaol on the viability of gastric cancer cells. Unlike 6- gingerol, 6-shogaol alone reduced the viability of gastric cancer cells. These findings indicate for the first time that in gastric cancer cells, 6- gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced viability reduction by inhibiting TRAIL-induced NF-kappaB activation while 6- shogaol alone reduces viability by damaging microtubules.

Nam E Kang, et al. Gingerol Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae is one of the most frequently and heavily consumed dietary condiments throughout the world.

However, the effects of [6]-gingerol on metastatic processes in breast cancer cells are not currently well known. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effects of [6]-gingerol on adhesion, invasion, motility, activity and the amount of MMP-2 or -9 in the MDA-MB human breast cancer cell line. Treatment of MDA-MB cells with increasing concentrations of [6]-gingerol led to a concentration-dependent decrease in cell migration and motility.

The amount of MMP-2 protein was decreased in a dose-dependent manner, although there was no change in the MMP-9 protein levels following treatment with [6]-gingerol.

E-H Chew, et al. Shogaols are reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, the antimetastatic potential of shogaols remains unexplored. This study was performed to assess the effects of shogaols against breast cancer cell invasion and to investigate the underlying mechanisms.

The anti-invasive effect of a series of shogaols was initially evaluated on MDA-MB breast cancer cells using the matrigel invasion assay. In addition, 6-shogaol was found to inhibit JNK activation with no resulting reduction in activator protein-1 transcriptional activity. This class of naturally occurring small molecules thus have potential for clinical use as antimetastatic treatments.

Srijit Das, et al. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups based on diet: In the choline-deficient diet group, Despite its potential efficacy in cancer, the mechanism by which [6]-gingerol exerts its chemopreventive effects remains elusive. Our in silico prediction using a reverse-docking approach revealed that LTA4H might be a potential target of [6]-gingerol.

We supported our prediction by showing that [6]-gingerol suppresses anchorage-independent cancer cell growth by inhibiting LTA4H activity in HCT colorectal cancer cells. We showed that [6]-gingerol effectively suppressed tumor growth in vivo in nude mice, an effect that was mediated by inhibition of LTA4H activity. Collectively, these findings indicate a crucial role of LTA4H in cancer and also support the anticancer efficacy of [6]-gingerol targeting of LTA4H for the prevention of colorectal cancer.

We investigated the components of ginger that are involved in increasing body temperature. Gingerols [6,8,10]- gingerols and shogaols [6,8,10]-shogaols having different alkyl carbon chain lengths were targeted. In this regard, the shogaols were more potent than the gingerols. In conclusion, gingerols and shogaols activated TRPV1 and increased adrenaline secretion.

Interestingly, [10]-shogaol is the only nonpungent compound among the gingerols and shogaols, suggesting its usefulness as a functional ingredient in food. MY Henein, and R. Ginger is now exciting considerable interest for its potential to treat many aspects of cardiovascular disease. This letter reviews the more recent trials, which suggest that ginger shows considerable anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-platelet, hypotensive and hypolipidemic effect in in vitro and animal studies.

Human trials have been few and generally used a low dose with inconclusive results, however dosages of 5 g or more demonstrated significant anti- platelet activity.

More human trials are needed using an appropriate dosage of a standardised extract. Should these prove positive, ginger has the potential to offer not only a cheaper natural alternative to conventional agents but one with significantly lower side effects. AJ Ammit, et al. Gingerols, the active components of ginger the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, Roscoe , represent a potential new class of platelet activation inhibitors. In this study, we examined the ability of a series of synthetic gingerols and related phenylalkanol analogues G1-G7 to inhibit human platelet activation, compared to aspirin, by measuring their effects on arachidonic acid AA -induced platelet serotonin release and aggregation in vitro.

Gingerols and related analogues G1-G7 inhibited the AA-induced platelet release reaction in a similar dose range as aspirin, with IC 50 values between G1-G7 were also effective inhibitors of AA-induced human platelet aggregation. Maximum inhibitory IC max values of The remaining gingerols and related analogues maximally inhibited AA-induced platelet aggregation at approximately microM.

The mechanism underlying inhibition of the AA-induced platelet release reaction and aggregation by G1-G7 may be via an effect on cyclooxygenase COX activity in platelets because representative gingerols and related analogues G3- G6 potently inhibited COX activity in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells.

KK Al-Qattan, et al. The effect of an aqueous extract of ginger Zingiber officinale on serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as platelet thromboxane-B 2 and prostaglandin-E 2 production was examined.

A raw aqueous extract of ginger was administered daily for a period of 4 weeks, either orally or intraperitoneally IP to rats. Fasting blood serum was investigated for thromboxane-B 2 , prostaglandin-E 2 , cholesterol and triglycerides. However, ginger administered orally caused significant changes in the serum PGE 2 at this dose. No significant changes in serum triglyceride levels were observed upon administration of either the low or high dose of ginger.

These results suggest that ginger could be used as an cholesterol-lowering, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory agent. The effects of air dried ginger powder 0. There was distinct decrease in lipid peroxidation and enhancement of fibrinolytic activity in ginger treated animals.

However, ginger did not lower blood lipidsto any significant extent. This distinct protection from the development of atherosclerosis by ginger is probably because of its free radical scavanging, prostaglandin inhibitory and fibri properties.

Yuhao Li, et al. Ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae is one of the most commonly used spices around the world and a traditional medicinal plant that has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Unani-Tibb medicines for several thousand years. However, there was still lack of systemic safety evaluation. We conducted a day toxicity study on ginger in rats.

The results demonstrated that this chronic administration of ginger was not associated with any mortalities and abnormalities in general conditions, behavior, growth, and food and water consumption. Except for dose-related decrease in serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in males, ginger treatment induced similar hematological and blood biochemical parameters to those of controlled animals. In general, ginger treatment caused no overt organ abnormality. This study provides a new understanding of the toxicological properties of ginger.

Lotus Press, Benedict Lust Publications, , Lotus Press, , Concept Publishing, 35, ch. I Calcutta, self, , ch. Reid, Chinese Herbal Medicine Boston: Dell Publishing, Concept Publishing, ch. Routine Care for the Healthy Pregnant Woman.

Evidence —Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Pocket Books, Warner Books, Guduchi is one of the most highly valued and common herbs in Ayurvedic medicine. It has a rich history in the Indian sub-continent where it has been used and written about for thousands of years. It is considered one of the best rasayanas adaptogens and is unusual in its potent versatility. In recent years, significant progress has been attained regarding its biological activity and medicinal applications.

Its scientific name is Tinospora cordifolia and is in the Family Menispermaceae. Guduchi, amrita Sanskrit , giloya, amrita Hindi , giloe, gulancha Bengali , gado, galo Gujarati , duyutige, teppatige Telugu , heartleaf moonseed, Tinospora English.

It is a woody climbing shrub that is deciduous and perennial. This herbaceous vine grows on hedges and trees. It is often seen growing up mango or neem trees. Guduchi typically grows in deciduous and dry forests at elevations up to ft.

Its flowers bloom in summer. The male flower is small, yellow or green in color, and occurs in clusters. Female flowers are usually solitary and are green. The fruits are the size and shape of a large pea and turn from green to red when ripe in winter. The leaves are heart shaped giving the name cordifolia to the plant and mucilaginous.

Its stems, when fresh, have a green succulent bark covered by a thin brown bark and are studded with warty lenticels. When dry, the stem shrinks and the bark separate from the wood. The roots are long narrow aerial roots that arise from the branches.

The stems, leaves, and roots are used in medicine. All three parts should be collected in the summer when the bitter qualities are most abundant and, if not used fresh, dried in the shade. Guduchi grows well without fertilizer or pesticide making it simple to grow. It is easy to recognize and can be propagated by cuttings.

Ayurvedic herbalists generally describe it as having these qualities: Tridoshic in nature, its bitter and astringent properties and sweet post-digestive effect reduces pitta. The bitter, astringent, and heating qualities reduce kapha. Creating a Life Unlimited starts with our four pillars. Joining the Natural Health Revolution is a positive step towards naturally nourishing, restoring, and conditioning the body. Zija works hard to deliver products that fill a unique, health-focused void—they serve a distinct purpose in this revolution.

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Marcu cultivated a love of trees from an early age and has spent her life studying plants, particularly medical and healing plants. As a highly-respected researcher and clinical pharmacologist, she has worked in clinical pharmacies and biomedical research laboratories around the world. She is the author of the book Miracle Tree. Johnson pioneered evidence-based essential oil therapy, which combines the art of ancient healing with modern science to maximize the benefits of essential oils.

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